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carbohydrate

an organic compound made up of sugar molecules.

1

molecular formula of a carbohydrate

CH2O

2

matter

anything that occupies space and has mass

3

element

A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical means

4

what are the basic ingredients of matter

elements

5

what are the most essential elements to life

oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen

6

trace elements

elements that make up less than 0.01% of your body mass

7

what happens if you don't get enough iodine

thyroid glands do not function properly

8

thyroid gland

The gland in your throat that regulates it certain chemical processes in your body

9

compound

A substance containing two or more elements that are chemically combined in a fixed ratio

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atom

The smallest possible particle of an element

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atomos

Greek word meaning indivisible

12

subatomic particle

smaller components of atoms. These include protons, electrons, and neutrons.

13

what are the three subatomic particles in an atom?

protons neutrons electrons

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proton

A subatomic particle with a single unit of positive electrical charge

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electron

subatomic particle with a single unit of negative electrical charge

16

neutron

electrically neutral, no electrical charge.

17

what does an elements physical and chemical properties depend on

The number and arrangement of its subatomic particles

18

nucleus (atom)

where the protons and neutrons are tightly packaged together in the central core of the atom

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what keeps a electrons close to the nucleus

The attraction between the negatively charged electrons and the positively charged protons

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atomic number

The number of protons

21

isotopes

elements with alternate forms. Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons in their atoms but different numbers of neutrons.

22

what isotope makes up most of all naturally occurring carbon

carbon-12

23

radioactive isotope

an isotope in which the nucleus of decays (breaks down) over time, getting off radiation in the form of matter and energy.

24

what is the importance of radioactive isotopes

radioactive isotopes are useful as biological spies for observing what happens to different atoms within organisms.

25

how do radioactive isotopes work as biological spies

living cells use radioactive isotopes just as they would use the nonradioactive forms. scientists can track the presence of radioactive isotopes with instruments that detect radioactive decay.

26

how are radioactive isotopes harmful

particles and energy they give off can damage cells.

27

how does an atoms structure determine how it reacts with other atoms?

The atoms electrons. It is the electrons in the highest energy level of an atom that determine how the atom reacts

28

how do electrons differ?

in the amount of energy they have and how tightly they are held by the protons in the nucleus. Based on these properties, chemist describe an atoms electrons as belonging to certain energy levels

29

how many electrons can the first energy level hold

2 electrons

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how many electrons can the second energy level hold

8

31

what makes an atom chemically reactive

partially filled energy levels

32

inert

does not tend to react

33

ionic bond

occurs when an atom transfers and electron to another atom.

34

ion

atoms that have become electrically charged as a result of gaining or losing electrons

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covalent bond

A bond that forms when two atoms share electrons

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HONC

1 bond 2 bonds 3 bonds 4 bonds

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how many bonds can an atom form

The number of additional electrons that will fill its highest energy level

38

molecule

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

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chemical formula

tells you the number and types of ATOMS in a molecule

40

chemical reaction

changes in which result in the formation of one or more new substances. Chemical composition changes

41

reactant

the starting material in a chemical reaction

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product

the ending material in a chemical reaction

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how do chemical reactions take place

they do not create or destroy atoms only rearrange them. these rearrangement usually involve breaking chemical bonds in reactants and forming and forming new bonds in products

44

what is a water molecule

two hydrogen atoms are each joined to an oxygen atom by a single covalent bond. inorganic

45

polar molecule

a molecule in which opposite ends have opposite electric charges

46

why is water a polar molecule

oxygen pulls electrons much more strongly than hydrogen. Part of the reason is out the oxygen nucleus has a protons, and therefore has a stronger positive charge than the hydrogen nucleus, which has one proton. This unequal poll results in the shared electron spending more time in the neighborhood of the oxygen atom

47

causes water to have a slight negative charge

he equal sharing of electrons house is the oxygen end of the molecule to have a slight negative charge, While the end with the two hydrogen atoms is slightly positive

48

hydrogen bond

A week attraction between hydrogen Adams of one molecule and a slightly negative Adam within another molecule is a type of chemical bonds called a hydrogen bond

49

temperature

the measure of the average energy of random motion of the particles in a substance

50

solution

A uniform mixture of two or more substances

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solvent

The substance that dissolves of the other substance and is present in the greater amount

52

solute

The substance that is dissolved and is present in a lesser amount

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aqueous solution

the result when water is the solvent

54

why is water the meanest solvent inside all cells

water dissolves in an enormous variety of salutes necessary for life.

55

how does water dissolve table salt

Water dissolves ionic compounds such as table salt. The positive sodium ions of the surface of the sodium chloride crystal attract the oxygen ends of the water molecules. The negative chloride ions attract the hydrogen and the water molecules. As a result, water molecules around each ion, breaking the salt Crystal apart in the process

56

acid

less than 7 on the pH scale. A compound that donates H+ ions to a solution

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base

more than 7 on the pH scale. compound that removes H+ ions from an aqueous solution. OH-

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pH scale

describes how acidic or basic a solution is

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what is the pH of most living things

7

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buffer

A substance that causes a solution it to resist changes in pH

61

how does a buffer work

my excepting H+ ions when of their levels rise and donating H+ ions when their levels fall. This maintains a fairly constant pH in the solution

62

ozone

A gas made of oxygen atoms

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why is carbon is so common in living things?

each carbon atom is a connecting point from which another atoms can branch off in up to four directions

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organic molecules

carbon based molecules

65

inorganic molecule

non-carbon based molecules

66

hydrocarbons

organic molecules that are composed of only carbon and hydrogen

67

functional group

Group of atoms within a molecule that interact in a predictable ways with other molecules

68

hydrophilic

attracts water molecules

69

monomers

smaller molecular units that make up large molecules that are built from many similar small units

70

polymers

made of monomers linked into a chain

71

large molecule categories

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids

72

dehydration reaction

external monomer is added to a chain and a water molecule is released. (removing water)

73

hydrolysis reaction

when cells break bonds between monomers by adding water to them

74

how to build a polymer

water is removed

75

how to break apart a polymer

hydrolysis reaction
water is added

76

what shape are sugars

ring shaped

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monosaccharide

one sugar unit

78

examples of monosaccharides

glucose, fructose amd galactose

79

what is the main fuel supply for cellular work

sugar molecules

80

Disaccharide

double sugar

81

what is sucrose made of

glucose & fructose

82

polysaccharide

Long polymer chains made up of simple sugar monomers

83

starch

A polysaccharide found in a plant cells that consists entirely of glucose monomers. curly shape

84

do animal cells contain starch

no

85

glycogen

A chain of many glucose monomers. Where access sugar is stored

86

cellulose

polysaccharide in the plants. Straight-chain. protect cells and stiffen the plant, preventing it from flopping over.

87

why can't animals and people digest cellulose

cause they lack the molecule not certain to break the bonds between the glucose monomers

88

fiber

passes through the digestive system unchanged

89

lipid

water avoiding molecule. Hydrophobic. lipids act a boundary that surrounds and contains the watery contents of your cells. store energy

90

fat

three carbon backbone called glycerol attached to three fatty acids. cushion organs and provide body with insulation

91

saturated fat

A fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms

92

unsaturated fat

contains less than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms and one or more of it's fatty acid chains because some of its carbon atoms are double bonded to each other.

93

why are saturated fats unhealthy

promote the buildup of lipid containing deposits, called plaques, within the walls of blood vessels. These plaques can reduce blood flow and contribute to heart disease

94

steroid

lipid molecule in which the carbon skeleton forms for fused rings.

95

what is made of a long polymer of many glucose in a straight chain

cellulose

96

which does not belong with the rest of this list: (lactose, glycogen, triglyceride, glucose)?

triglyceride

97

what is the catalyst in our cells

enzyme

98

is glucose a monosaccharide or a disaccharide

monosaccharide

99

is sucrose a monosaccharide or a disaccharide

disaccharide

100

what sugar is found in fruits

fructose

101

what is the most acidic pH level possible

1

102

how are steroids different from most lipids

they are different in structure and function. Some steroid circulating your body is a chemical signal

103

what is the female and male sex hormone

estrogen and testosterone

104

do estrogen and testosterone differ

have differences in their functional groups.

105

what causes the differences in appearance between male and female

The differences in the functional groups of estrogen and testosterone

106

protein

polymer constructed from a side of just 20 kinds of monomers called amino acids.

107

amino acid

a monomer that consists of a central Carbon Adam bonded to four partners.

108

it is different about each type of amino acid?

the R group that attaches to the fourth bond of the central Carbon.

109

R group

The side group that is responsible for the particular chemical properties for each amino acid

110

how do cells create proteins?

linking amino acids together into a chain called a polypeptide

111

how many amino acids are there

20

112

in the alphabet analogy what are the letters? what are the words

amino acids
proteins

113

I do bacteria/single cell life divide?

to make offspring

114

what is the stage where all cells carry out their metabolic process and grow

interphase

115

it is the second step of the cell cycle

S

116

some organisms have the ability to change color to match their environment. What is this an example of?

adaption and evolution

117

which subatomic particle has a positive charge?

proton

118

is the substance to the left of the arrow in an equation called!

reactant

119

what is an element atomic number the number of?

protons

120

what can be radioactive and used to kill cancer and bacteria?

isotope

121

when ice melts, is it a representation of a physical or chemical property of water?

physical

122

what is the center of an atom that holds the neutrons

nucleus

123

what is the symbol for sulfur

S

124

what are two molecules with the same molecular formulas but different structures?

isomers

125

and what kind of reaction does a polymer breaking down with the input of water

hydrolysis

126

what is the valence of oxygen

2

127

what is the ability to distinguish between objects before they've blurred together

resolution

128

1 mm hold how many micrometers?

1000

129

what magnifies the outer surface of cells but also kills them?

SEM

130

Who invented the first microscope

von Leeuwenhoek

131

development

The process where life goes through a series of changes when they grow

132

comsumers

Life forms that obtain energy from eating food made by plants

133

excrete

releasing waste

134

the E of TEM stands for what?

electron

135

does burning paper undergoing physical or chemical change? How do you know?

it undergoes a chemical change because it's chemical composition has changed through the burning

136

what stores water in plant cells and keeps them crunchy

vacuole

137

what is the liquid part of the cytoplasm called

cytosol

174

DNA polymerase

makes covalent bonds between the nucleotides of the new DNA strand

175

each gene is like a what

sentence

176

transcription

DNA nucleotide sequences converted to the form of a single-stranded RNA molecule in the process

177

codon

hree bases that code for one amino acid

178

centrifuge

tool used to separate material by spinning them

179

microtome

tool used to slice materials thin for use with microscopes

180

flagella structure

Long, thin, wisp like structures.
core of microtubules

181

flagella function

enable some cells to move

182

cilia structure and function

shorter than flagella.
bundles of microtubules
moves things through cells

183

prophase 1

Homologous chromosomes stick together. Tetrads attach to spindles

184

metaphase 1

tetrads move to the middle of the cell

185

anaphase 1

homologous chromosomes separate

186

telophase 1

chromosomes go to the poles. nuclear envelope forms

187

cholesterol function in membrane

makes it fluid

188

Hydrophobic tales

help the bilayer be selective

189

hydrophilic in membrane

heads
contrast with tail
selective

190

integral proteins

A protein that goes through the entire bilayer

191

transport protein

hopes substances pass through by diffusion. Substances too big or have a charge might not be able to go through

192

genome

The complete set of genetic material in an organism by the order of the DNA

193

histones

DNA wraps around small proteins called histones

194

Jumping genes

transponons

195

diploid

contains 2 sets of homologous chromosomes

196

gametes

sex cells

197

haploid

single set of chromosomes

198

zygote

fertilized egg

199

A member of a gene pair that determines a specific trait

allele

200

mendel

father of genetics

201

The law of independent assortment

states that each gene pair is inherited independently of the gene pairs for other traits

202

study of heredity

genetics

203

condition in which neither of the two genes imaging pair masks the other

incomplete dominance

204

start codon

aug

205

stop codons

uaa uag uga

206

why are there 64 codons

there are 64 codons because therefore different you can type possible to make up a three codon amino acid

207

The exchange of DNA between homologous chromosomes during prophase one of meiosis

crossing over

208

final essay questions: chloroplast

where photosynthesis takes place
farm for food (where food is made)

209

final essay question: mitochondria

takes sugar and makes energy available
grocery store. prepares food and makes available for people

210

final essay question: nucleolus

stores information like a library

211

final essay question: cell wall

keeps plants stiff and supports them
teacher. supports with education/ encourages but keeps inline strict and stiff

314

catalyst

compound that speeds up chemical reactions

315

substrate

A specific reactance acted upon by an enzyme is an enzyme substrate

316

cell theory

all living things are composed of cells
cells are the basic unit of structure and the function in living things
all cells come from pre existing cells

317

how does cilia help you breathe

The cells lining your windpipe of cilia that sweet mucus with traffic debris out of your lungs. The sleeping action helps keep your respiratory system clean and allows air to flow through it smoothly

318

diffusion

and that movement of particles of a substance from where they are more concentrated where they are less concentrated

319

equilibrium

balance

320

collectively permeable membrane

allows some substances to cross the membrane more easily than others and blocks the passage of some substances altogether

321

passive transport

diffusion across the membrane

322

facilitated diffusion

The traffic of sandwich substances can only occurred by way of transport proteins. In this process known as facilitated diffusion, transport proteins provide a pathway for certain molecules pass

323

vesicles

small membrane sax that specialize in moving product's into out oven within itself

324

exosytosis

expels molecules from the cell that are too large to pass through the plasma membrane

325

endocytlsis

takes matetials into the cell

326

what are the five parts of the fluid mosaic model?

hydrophilic head
hydrophobic tail
peripheral protein
integral protein (ex.. transport)
cholsetrol

327

function of the peripheral protein

recieves signals

328

transport protein

helps substances pass through by diffusion. Substances that are too big or have a charge need a transport protein

329

adaption

I trait that allows an organism to better survive its environment

330

stimulus response

reacting to something in the environment (sound, light, touch)

331

development

Progressive change in size shape and function during the life of an organism

332

HOGS EAR DEW

homeostasis, organization, growth, stimulus response, evolution, adaption, reproduction, development, excretion

333

compound light microscope

common lab microscope, 3000 X, light, 2-D, sees living cells

334

stereomicroscope

dissecting microscope, 500 X, light, 3-D, magnifies surface of living

335

SEM

scanning microscope, 100,000x, electrons, 3-D, surfaces of cells, kills specimen

336

TEM

transmission electron microscope, 300,000x, electrons, 2-D, interior of cells, kills

337

first way to run a test of slime

use a microscope to see if the slime is composed of cells. Look for characteristics of life such a cell membrane or possibly a nucleus.

338

Second way to test for characteristics of life on slime

living things have stimulus responses. poke to see if it responds in anyway. Before that see if it moves without being stimulated by observing and placing it in an environment that wouldn't affect its movement

339

third way to test this line

see if the slime can maintain constant internal conditions or homeostasis. Measure the temperature of the slime first and then see if it changes or stays the same

340

structural differences of starch and cellulose

starch is loopy
cellulose is straight
both glucose monomers

341

differences in the function of starch and cellulose

starch- used in plants as a sugar for energy to perform work and use as raw material to build other molecules. Humans and most of their animals are able to use plant start as food by breaking down within their digestive systems

cellulose - protects cells and stiffens the plant so it doesn't flop over

342

why is it important that starch is the shape that it is

so it can move through cells easily

343

importance of cellulose being the shape that it is

Great shape stiffens plants. cleans digestive system

344

saturated fat

three straight chains of fatty acids that contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms which causes a structural change because the hydrogen makes all single bonds which makes a straight chain. Energy, hormone production, cellular membranes and for organ padding

345

unsaturated fat

contains less than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms in one or more of it's fatty acid chains. This causes a structural change because the hydrogen makes double bonds which make it so the chains cannot be street. The chains are not straight. Increases fluidity of the membranes

346

tRNA

shape allows it to read codons to make amino acids which then make the protein

347

mRNA

transcribed from a DNA template. In transcription only one of the DNA strand serve as a template for the newly forming am I in a molecule. I'm on a chance grab Philogene directly serves as a messenger molecule that is translated into a protein

348

DNA replication process

two strands of the double helix separate. Each strand produces a new, complementary strand. Nucleotides lineup across from the existing strand as predicted by the base pair rule. & Link the nucleotides together to form the two new DNA strands called daughter strands

349

what is the process of copying the DNA molecule

DNA replication