Flashcards in Final Flash Cards Deck (212):
an organic compound made up of sugar molecules.
molecular formula of a carbohydrate
anything that occupies space and has mass
A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical means
what are the basic ingredients of matter
what are the most essential elements to life
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
elements that make up less than 0.01% of your body mass
what happens if you don't get enough iodine
thyroid glands do not function properly
The gland in your throat that regulates it certain chemical processes in your body
A substance containing two or more elements that are chemically combined in a fixed ratio
The smallest possible particle of an element
Greek word meaning indivisible
smaller components of atoms. These include protons, electrons, and neutrons.
what are the three subatomic particles in an atom?
protons neutrons electrons
A subatomic particle with a single unit of positive electrical charge
subatomic particle with a single unit of negative electrical charge
electrically neutral, no electrical charge.
what does an elements physical and chemical properties depend on
The number and arrangement of its subatomic particles
where the protons and neutrons are tightly packaged together in the central core of the atom
what keeps a electrons close to the nucleus
The attraction between the negatively charged electrons and the positively charged protons
The number of protons
elements with alternate forms. Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons in their atoms but different numbers of neutrons.
what isotope makes up most of all naturally occurring carbon
an isotope in which the nucleus of decays (breaks down) over time, getting off radiation in the form of matter and energy.
what is the importance of radioactive isotopes
radioactive isotopes are useful as biological spies for observing what happens to different atoms within organisms.
how do radioactive isotopes work as biological spies
living cells use radioactive isotopes just as they would use the nonradioactive forms. scientists can track the presence of radioactive isotopes with instruments that detect radioactive decay.
how are radioactive isotopes harmful
particles and energy they give off can damage cells.
how does an atoms structure determine how it reacts with other atoms?
The atoms electrons. It is the electrons in the highest energy level of an atom that determine how the atom reacts
how do electrons differ?
in the amount of energy they have and how tightly they are held by the protons in the nucleus. Based on these properties, chemist describe an atoms electrons as belonging to certain energy levels
how many electrons can the first energy level hold
how many electrons can the second energy level hold
what makes an atom chemically reactive
partially filled energy levels
does not tend to react
occurs when an atom transfers and electron to another atom.
atoms that have become electrically charged as a result of gaining or losing electrons
A bond that forms when two atoms share electrons
1 bond 2 bonds 3 bonds 4 bonds
how many bonds can an atom form
The number of additional electrons that will fill its highest energy level
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
tells you the number and types of ATOMS in a molecule
changes in which result in the formation of one or more new substances. Chemical composition changes
the starting material in a chemical reaction
the ending material in a chemical reaction
how do chemical reactions take place
they do not create or destroy atoms only rearrange them. these rearrangement usually involve breaking chemical bonds in reactants and forming and forming new bonds in products
what is a water molecule
two hydrogen atoms are each joined to an oxygen atom by a single covalent bond. inorganic
a molecule in which opposite ends have opposite electric charges
why is water a polar molecule
oxygen pulls electrons much more strongly than hydrogen. Part of the reason is out the oxygen nucleus has a protons, and therefore has a stronger positive charge than the hydrogen nucleus, which has one proton. This unequal poll results in the shared electron spending more time in the neighborhood of the oxygen atom
causes water to have a slight negative charge
he equal sharing of electrons house is the oxygen end of the molecule to have a slight negative charge, While the end with the two hydrogen atoms is slightly positive
A week attraction between hydrogen Adams of one molecule and a slightly negative Adam within another molecule is a type of chemical bonds called a hydrogen bond
the measure of the average energy of random motion of the particles in a substance
A uniform mixture of two or more substances
The substance that dissolves of the other substance and is present in the greater amount
The substance that is dissolved and is present in a lesser amount
the result when water is the solvent
why is water the meanest solvent inside all cells
water dissolves in an enormous variety of salutes necessary for life.
how does water dissolve table salt
Water dissolves ionic compounds such as table salt. The positive sodium ions of the surface of the sodium chloride crystal attract the oxygen ends of the water molecules. The negative chloride ions attract the hydrogen and the water molecules. As a result, water molecules around each ion, breaking the salt Crystal apart in the process
less than 7 on the pH scale. A compound that donates H+ ions to a solution
more than 7 on the pH scale. compound that removes H+ ions from an aqueous solution. OH-
describes how acidic or basic a solution is
what is the pH of most living things
A substance that causes a solution it to resist changes in pH
how does a buffer work
my excepting H+ ions when of their levels rise and donating H+ ions when their levels fall. This maintains a fairly constant pH in the solution
A gas made of oxygen atoms
why is carbon is so common in living things?
each carbon atom is a connecting point from which another atoms can branch off in up to four directions
carbon based molecules
non-carbon based molecules
organic molecules that are composed of only carbon and hydrogen
Group of atoms within a molecule that interact in a predictable ways with other molecules
attracts water molecules
smaller molecular units that make up large molecules that are built from many similar small units
made of monomers linked into a chain
large molecule categories
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
external monomer is added to a chain and a water molecule is released. (removing water)
when cells break bonds between monomers by adding water to them
how to build a polymer
water is removed
how to break apart a polymer
water is added
what shape are sugars
one sugar unit
examples of monosaccharides
glucose, fructose amd galactose
what is the main fuel supply for cellular work
what is sucrose made of
glucose & fructose
Long polymer chains made up of simple sugar monomers
A polysaccharide found in a plant cells that consists entirely of glucose monomers. curly shape
do animal cells contain starch
A chain of many glucose monomers. Where access sugar is stored
polysaccharide in the plants. Straight-chain. protect cells and stiffen the plant, preventing it from flopping over.
why can't animals and people digest cellulose
cause they lack the molecule not certain to break the bonds between the glucose monomers
passes through the digestive system unchanged
water avoiding molecule. Hydrophobic. lipids act a boundary that surrounds and contains the watery contents of your cells. store energy
three carbon backbone called glycerol attached to three fatty acids. cushion organs and provide body with insulation
A fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
contains less than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms and one or more of it's fatty acid chains because some of its carbon atoms are double bonded to each other.
why are saturated fats unhealthy
promote the buildup of lipid containing deposits, called plaques, within the walls of blood vessels. These plaques can reduce blood flow and contribute to heart disease
lipid molecule in which the carbon skeleton forms for fused rings.
what is made of a long polymer of many glucose in a straight chain
which does not belong with the rest of this list: (lactose, glycogen, triglyceride, glucose)?
what is the catalyst in our cells
is glucose a monosaccharide or a disaccharide
is sucrose a monosaccharide or a disaccharide
what sugar is found in fruits
what is the most acidic pH level possible
how are steroids different from most lipids
they are different in structure and function. Some steroid circulating your body is a chemical signal
what is the female and male sex hormone
estrogen and testosterone
do estrogen and testosterone differ
have differences in their functional groups.
what causes the differences in appearance between male and female
The differences in the functional groups of estrogen and testosterone
polymer constructed from a side of just 20 kinds of monomers called amino acids.
a monomer that consists of a central Carbon Adam bonded to four partners.
it is different about each type of amino acid?
the R group that attaches to the fourth bond of the central Carbon.
The side group that is responsible for the particular chemical properties for each amino acid
how do cells create proteins?
linking amino acids together into a chain called a polypeptide
how many amino acids are there
in the alphabet analogy what are the letters? what are the words
I do bacteria/single cell life divide?
to make offspring
what is the stage where all cells carry out their metabolic process and grow
it is the second step of the cell cycle
some organisms have the ability to change color to match their environment. What is this an example of?
adaption and evolution
which subatomic particle has a positive charge?
is the substance to the left of the arrow in an equation called!
what is an element atomic number the number of?
what can be radioactive and used to kill cancer and bacteria?
when ice melts, is it a representation of a physical or chemical property of water?
what is the center of an atom that holds the neutrons
what is the symbol for sulfur
what are two molecules with the same molecular formulas but different structures?
and what kind of reaction does a polymer breaking down with the input of water
what is the valence of oxygen
what is the ability to distinguish between objects before they've blurred together
1 mm hold how many micrometers?
what magnifies the outer surface of cells but also kills them?
Who invented the first microscope
The process where life goes through a series of changes when they grow
Life forms that obtain energy from eating food made by plants
the E of TEM stands for what?
does burning paper undergoing physical or chemical change? How do you know?
it undergoes a chemical change because it's chemical composition has changed through the burning
what stores water in plant cells and keeps them crunchy
what is the liquid part of the cytoplasm called
makes covalent bonds between the nucleotides of the new DNA strand
each gene is like a what
DNA nucleotide sequences converted to the form of a single-stranded RNA molecule in the process
hree bases that code for one amino acid
tool used to separate material by spinning them
tool used to slice materials thin for use with microscopes
Long, thin, wisp like structures.
core of microtubules
enable some cells to move
cilia structure and function
shorter than flagella.
bundles of microtubules
moves things through cells
Homologous chromosomes stick together. Tetrads attach to spindles
tetrads move to the middle of the cell
homologous chromosomes separate
chromosomes go to the poles. nuclear envelope forms
cholesterol function in membrane
makes it fluid
help the bilayer be selective
hydrophilic in membrane
contrast with tail
A protein that goes through the entire bilayer
hopes substances pass through by diffusion. Substances too big or have a charge might not be able to go through
The complete set of genetic material in an organism by the order of the DNA
DNA wraps around small proteins called histones
contains 2 sets of homologous chromosomes
single set of chromosomes
A member of a gene pair that determines a specific trait
father of genetics
The law of independent assortment
states that each gene pair is inherited independently of the gene pairs for other traits
study of heredity
condition in which neither of the two genes imaging pair masks the other
uaa uag uga
why are there 64 codons
there are 64 codons because therefore different you can type possible to make up a three codon amino acid
The exchange of DNA between homologous chromosomes during prophase one of meiosis
final essay questions: chloroplast
where photosynthesis takes place
farm for food (where food is made)
final essay question: mitochondria
takes sugar and makes energy available
grocery store. prepares food and makes available for people
final essay question: nucleolus
stores information like a library
final essay question: cell wall
keeps plants stiff and supports them
teacher. supports with education/ encourages but keeps inline strict and stiff
compound that speeds up chemical reactions
A specific reactance acted upon by an enzyme is an enzyme substrate
all living things are composed of cells
cells are the basic unit of structure and the function in living things
all cells come from pre existing cells
how does cilia help you breathe
The cells lining your windpipe of cilia that sweet mucus with traffic debris out of your lungs. The sleeping action helps keep your respiratory system clean and allows air to flow through it smoothly
and that movement of particles of a substance from where they are more concentrated where they are less concentrated
collectively permeable membrane
allows some substances to cross the membrane more easily than others and blocks the passage of some substances altogether
diffusion across the membrane
The traffic of sandwich substances can only occurred by way of transport proteins. In this process known as facilitated diffusion, transport proteins provide a pathway for certain molecules pass
small membrane sax that specialize in moving product's into out oven within itself
expels molecules from the cell that are too large to pass through the plasma membrane
takes matetials into the cell
what are the five parts of the fluid mosaic model?
integral protein (ex.. transport)
function of the peripheral protein
helps substances pass through by diffusion. Substances that are too big or have a charge need a transport protein
I trait that allows an organism to better survive its environment
reacting to something in the environment (sound, light, touch)
Progressive change in size shape and function during the life of an organism
HOGS EAR DEW
homeostasis, organization, growth, stimulus response, evolution, adaption, reproduction, development, excretion
compound light microscope
common lab microscope, 3000 X, light, 2-D, sees living cells
dissecting microscope, 500 X, light, 3-D, magnifies surface of living
scanning microscope, 100,000x, electrons, 3-D, surfaces of cells, kills specimen
transmission electron microscope, 300,000x, electrons, 2-D, interior of cells, kills
first way to run a test of slime
use a microscope to see if the slime is composed of cells. Look for characteristics of life such a cell membrane or possibly a nucleus.
Second way to test for characteristics of life on slime
living things have stimulus responses. poke to see if it responds in anyway. Before that see if it moves without being stimulated by observing and placing it in an environment that wouldn't affect its movement
third way to test this line
see if the slime can maintain constant internal conditions or homeostasis. Measure the temperature of the slime first and then see if it changes or stays the same
structural differences of starch and cellulose
starch is loopy
cellulose is straight
both glucose monomers
differences in the function of starch and cellulose
starch- used in plants as a sugar for energy to perform work and use as raw material to build other molecules. Humans and most of their animals are able to use plant start as food by breaking down within their digestive systems
cellulose - protects cells and stiffens the plant so it doesn't flop over
why is it important that starch is the shape that it is
so it can move through cells easily
importance of cellulose being the shape that it is
Great shape stiffens plants. cleans digestive system
three straight chains of fatty acids that contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms which causes a structural change because the hydrogen makes all single bonds which makes a straight chain. Energy, hormone production, cellular membranes and for organ padding
contains less than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms in one or more of it's fatty acid chains. This causes a structural change because the hydrogen makes double bonds which make it so the chains cannot be street. The chains are not straight. Increases fluidity of the membranes
shape allows it to read codons to make amino acids which then make the protein
transcribed from a DNA template. In transcription only one of the DNA strand serve as a template for the newly forming am I in a molecule. I'm on a chance grab Philogene directly serves as a messenger molecule that is translated into a protein
DNA replication process
two strands of the double helix separate. Each strand produces a new, complementary strand. Nucleotides lineup across from the existing strand as predicted by the base pair rule. & Link the nucleotides together to form the two new DNA strands called daughter strands