Final Gross - Heart Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Gross - Heart Deck (69):
1

What is the right border of the heart

right atrium

2

What is the inferior border and anterior surface of the heart

right ventricle

3

What is the superior border and posterior surface of the heart

left atrium

4

What is the left border and apex of the heart

left ventricle

5

This separates the atria from the ventricles

atrioventricular valves

6

This separates the left and right atria

interatrial septum

7

This separates the right and left ventricles

interventricular septum

8

What marks the AV valves and the IV septum

grooves due to muscular changes

9

What is the surface of the atrial wall

smooth muscular surface

10

What is the auricle

"roof" of atrium; rough with pectinate muscles

11

This separates the smooth muscular surface of the atrium from the rough pectinate muscles

crista terminalis

12

This is the depression in the IA wall

fossa ovalis

13

This leads into the right atrium

AV orifice

14

The tricuspid valve has how many cusps

anterior, septal, and posterior cusps

15

What are the cusps of the tricuspid valve anchored by

chordae tendineae to papillary muscles

16

What composes the interior wall of the right ventricle

rough with trabecular carneae

17

This makes up the conduction system of the heart in the right ventricle, located medially

septomarginal trabecula

18

This is a funnel to the pulmonary trunk

conus arteriosus

19

What makes up the atrial wall of the left atrium

smooth muscular surface

20

What makes up the roof of the left atrium

auricle; rough with pectinate muscle

21

What enters the left atrium posteriorly

4 pulmonary veins (in pairs)

22

This is in the interatrial wall of the left atrium

valve of foramen oval (fossa ovalis)

23

The AV orifice of the left atrium leads to where

the left ventricle

24

What are the cusps of the bicuspid (mitral) valve

anterior and posterior

25

How are the cusps of the bicuspid valve anchored

via chordae tendineae to papillary muscles

26

True or False
The anterior and posterior papillary muscles control both cusps

True

27

During the left bundle inter ventricular contraction, which papillary muscle contracts first to prevent back flow

anterior papillary muscle

28

What composed the interior wall of the left ventricle

rough with trabeculae carneae

29

Where does the aortic orifice lead to of the left ventricle

ascending aorta

30

What is unique about the muscle wall (myocardium) of the left ventricle

it is typically 3x thicker

31

The aortic semilunar valve (in the aorta) consists of what three cusps

left, right, and posterior

32

The pulmonary semilunar valve consists of what three cusps

left, right, and anterior

33

What provides attachment, support and insulation (from electrical contraction)

fibrous skeleton; dense collagen rings and trigones

34

This is the remnant of the fetal ductus arterioles

ligamentum arteriosum

35

Where is the ligamentum arteriosum located

between the left pulmonary artery and aorta; was used to shunt blood from right ventricle to aorta

36

This arises from the right side of the ascending aorta just superior to right aortic semilunar cusp

right coronary artery

37

Where does the right coronary artery travel

in coronary sulcus around the right side of the heart turning inferior to become the posterior interventricular artery (posterior descending)

38

The posterior inter ventricular artery runs where

in posterior IV sulcus traveling to the apex of the heart

39

What are the branches of the right coronary artery

sinoatrial nodal branch
anterior right ventricular branch
right marginal branch

40

This arises from the left side of the ascending aorta originating just superior to left aortic semilunar cusp

left coronary artery

41

What does the left coronary artery divide into

anterior interventricular and circumflex

42

Where does the anterior inter ventricular artery run

in anterior IV sulcus
travels toward apex of heart

43

The circumflex artery runs where and supplies what

in the coronary sulcus circling around the left side of the heart supplying posterior aspect of left ventricle and turning inferior to become posterior left ventricular artery

44

What branches does the circumflex artery give off

left marginal branch to supply lateral left ventricle

45

One coronary artery is more dominant, which one is it in 65% of cases

right coronary artery; crossing over to supply left ventricle posteriorly

46

One coronary artery is more dominant, which one is it in 15% of cases

left coronary artery; crossing over to supply right ventricle posteriorly

47

One coronary artery is more dominant, but in some cases, what percentage has balanced arterial pattern

20%

48

Most veins of the heart of tributaries to what

coronary sinus

49

Where is the coronary sinus located

lies in posterior portion of coronary sulcus

50

Where does the coronary sinus drain

into right atrium between IVC and AV orifice

51

Where does the great cardiac vein run

travels with anterior IV artery in anterior IV sulcus turning left to run in coronary sulcus superiorly travels with circumflex around left side and drains into coronary sinus posteriorly

52

Where does the middle cardiac vein run

travels with posterior inter ventricular artery in posterior IV sulcus, empties into coronary sinus superiorly

53

Where does the small cardiac vein run

travels with right marginal artery along lateral right ventricle, turns right to run in coronary sulcus superiorly, travels with right coronary artery around right side of the heart and empties into coronary sinus posteriorly

54

These veins do not empty into the coronary sinus

anterior cardiac veins

55

Where does the anterior cardiac veins run

travels with anterior right ventricular artery along anterior right ventricle, ascend toward right auricle emptying directly into right atrium

56

When vein is commonly used for bypass grafts

great saphenous vein from anterior/medial region of the thigh or leg
internal thoracic and radial

57

Where is a bypass sutured

into aorta and distal branch of coronary artery; must consider arrangement of valves

58

Where does the heart receive sympathetic innervation from

T1-T5

59

Where does the heart receive parasympathetic innervation from

vagus nerve

60

Where does the sympathetic intrinsic ganglia lie

right next to SA node

61

True or False
Both the SNS and PNS contribute to both superficial and deep cardinal plexuses of nerves

True

62

What does the sympathetic nervous system do to the heart

speed it up
increases force of contraction
inhibits coronary vascular contraction producing dilation which allows more blood volume

63

What does the parasympathetic nervous system do to the heart

slows down
lessens the force of contraction
constricts coronary vessels decreasing blood volume

64

What does the conduction system of the heat consist of

SA node
AV node
AV bundle

65

Where is the SA node located

in crista terminals between right atrium and SVC

66

Where are the AV node and bundle located

in IA septum near coronary sinus opening

67

What is the conduction pathway of the heart

impulses are initiated by SA node traveling to AV node
atrial contration
then to AV bundle and IV septum
the septum divides into right and left bundle branches
purkinje fibres travel to ventricles for contraction

68

Damage to the conduction system results in what

cardiac arrhythmais
damage to AV node will cause heart block
pacemaker may be inserted

69

How is the pacemaker inserted

battery pack inserted subcutaneously below clavicle
electrode is threaded downthorugh SVC to right atrium
passed through AV valve to right ventricle
electrode is fixed to trabeculae carneae
placed in contact with endocardium