Final Gross - The Superior and Posterior Mediastinum Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Gross - The Superior and Posterior Mediastinum Deck (48):
1

This is the median space between 2 pleural sacs

mediastinum

2

What are the boarders of the mediastinum

extends from thoracic inlet to diaphragm
sternum to 12th thoracic vertebrae

3

This is located most anterior in the superior mediastinum

thymus gland

4

What blood vessels are found in the superior midiastinum

SVC
right and left brachiocephalic vein
arch of the aorta
brachiocephalic trunk
left common carotid artery
left subclavian artery

5

What nerves are found in the superior mediastinum

right and left vagus
right and left phrenic
left recurrent laryngeal

6

What structures are found in the superior mediastinum

trachea
esophagus
thoracic duct

7

This structure is prominent and active during childhood and prior to puberty, and is functionally inactive and atrophies in adults; may be a fatty mass

thymus

8

This vein converges at right margin of the manubrium becoming the SVC

brachiocephalic

9

The left brachiocephalic crosses the trachea anterior or posterior?

anterior; and it crosses all major vessels too

10

What vertebrae level is the aortic arch

T4-T5

11

What structures does the aorta arch over

left pulmonary artery
left main bronchus

12

What great arteries does the aorta give rise to

brachiocephalic trunk
left common carotid
left subclavian

13

This enters the thorax between subclavian vein and artery descending posterior to the root of the lung

vagus nerve

14

What type of innervation does vagus supply

parasympathetic innervation to thorax (and abdomen)

15

This enters the thorax between the subclavian artery and vein descending anterior to the root of the lung

phrenic nerve

16

What type of innervation does phrenic supply

somatic innervation to the diaphragm

17

At what vertebral level does the trachea bifurcate at

inferior limit of the superior mediastinum
T4/T5

18

What is the bifurcation point of the trachea called and what is found there

carina
numerous lymph nodes

19

Where do foreign bodies usually aspirate into and why

right main bronchus
it is shorter and wider than the left main bronchus
right is more vertically orientated
carina is usually positioned more left of midline

20

This pierces the diaphragm at T10

esophagus

21

That stomach may herniate through what

the esophageal hiatus = hiatal hernia

22

A type I hiatal hernia is also known as what

sliding hiatal hernia

23

A type II hiatal hernia is also known as what

paraesophageal hernia

24

In this hiatal hernia the stomach slides freely into the thorax, is the most common and is asymptomatic

type 1; sliding

25

In this hiatal hernia it invoves the fundus and often fixed in position risking gastric blood supply

type II; paraesophageal

26

What structures are found in the posterior mediastinum

esophagus
esophageal plexus
thoracic duct

27

What vessels are found in the posterior mediastinum

azygos system of veins
descending aorta

28

What nerves are found in the posterior mediastinum

thoracic splanchnic nerves
greater, lesser, and least

29

What makes up the esophageal plexus

left and right vagus nerves; forming vagal trunks, due to gut rotation during development

30

Which vagus nerve makes up the anterior vagal trunk

left vagus

31

Which vagus nerve makes up the posterior vagal trunk

right vagus

32

This provides venous drainage for the thorax

azygos system of veins

33

This drains the intercostal veins from the right side of the thorax

azygos vein

34

This drains the left thorax

hemiazygous
accessory hemiazygous

35

What does the hemiazygous and accessory hemiazygous drain into

azygous vein
roughy at T8/T9, but variations are common

36

The azygous veins crosses what to drain into SVC

over right superior bronchus

37

This lies just left of the esophagus and gives rise to posterior intercostal arteries supplying thorax

descending aorta

38

The descending aorta gives off branches to supply what

trachea
bronchi
esophagus

39

This lies posterior to esophagus and anterior to vertebral bodies between the azygoes and descending aorta

thoracic duct

40

Where does the thoracic duct pass through the diaphragm

with descending aorta

41

Where does the thoracic duct drain lymph from

the body beneath the diaphragm and left upper body

42

Where does the thoracic duct drain lymph into

venous angle between left subclavian and left IJV

43

This is the accumulation of lymph in the pleural cavity

chylothorax

44

What is chylothroax a result from

torn or leaking thoracic duct often from lymphoma or trauma during thoracic surgery

45

Where are the thoracic splanchnic nerve derived from

sympathetic chain ganglia located along lateral aspect of vertebral bodies

46

What do the thoracic splanchinc nerves innervate

the abdomen;
greater lesser and least

47

Where do the thoracic autonomic (symp and psymp) nerve originate from

sympathetic; T1-T5
parasympathetic; CN X

48

What are the thoracic autonomic plexuses

cardiac
pulmonary
esophageal