Final Histo - Circulatory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Histo - Circulatory System Deck (79):
1

What does the heart wall contain

cardiac muscle
fibrous skeleton
intrinsic conduction system
coronary vasculature
serous membrane
endothelial cells and underlying connective tissue

2

What makes up the fibrous skeleton of the heart

four fibrous rings surrounding valve orifices
two fibrous trigones connecting rings
membranous portion of inter ventricular and interatrial septa

3

What tissue makes up the fibrous rings surrounding the valve orifices

dense irregular connective tissue

4

This is the outer layer; visceral layer of serous pericardium

epicardium

5

This is the middle layer; composed primarily of cardiac muscle, also contains the fibrous skeleton of the heart

myocardium

6

This is the inner layer of the heart wall

endocardium

7

What are the three components of the endocardium

endothelial cells
underlying dense connective tissue and smooth muscle
connective tissue

8

This is the inner layer of the endocardium

endothelial cells

9

This is the middle layer of the endocardium

underlying layer of dense connective tissue and smooth muscle cells

10

This is the deep layer of the endocardium

connective tissue containing the intrinsic conduction system

11

This is the "sac" surrounding the beginning and end of the heart and great vessels

pericardium

12

What type of tissue are the valves covered in

connective tissue with overlying endothelium

13

This is loose connective tissue covered in endothelium on atrial or blood vessels side of vavlue

spongiosa

14

What is the function of the spongiosa

shick absorber; it contains loosely arranged collagen and elastic fibers infiltrated with proteoglycans

15

This is the core of a valve; contains fibrous extensions from the dense irregular connective tissue of skeletal rings

fibrosa

16

This is the dense connective tissue with layers of elastic fibers covered in endothelium; adjacent to ventricular side of the valve

ventricularis

17

What is special about the cardiac muscle of the heart

it is able to depolarize and contract without impulses from the nervous system, due to the intrinsic cardiac conduction system

18

What type of cell is the intrinsic cardiac conduction system composed of

the 1% non contractile cardiac cells called cardiac conducting cells or auto rhythmic cells

19

How are the auto rhythmic cells organized

into nodes and highly specialized conducting fibers/tracts called Purkinje fibers

20

What are auto rhythmic cells responsible for

the initiation and distribution of impulses throughout the heart

21

What is the rate of the intrinsic cardiac muscle contraction controlled by

it is set by the pacemaker cell and is altered by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system as well as hormones

22

These modified cardiac muscle cells are found in the SA and AV nodes and are smaller than surrounding atrial contractile cardiac cells; contain fewer myofibrils and lack intercalated discs

nodal cardiac cells

23

These modified cardiac muscle cells are found in the AV bundle, bundle branches, and sub endothelial branches and are larger than the surrounding ventricular contractile cells

purkinje fibers

24

Purkinje cells contains what in their periphery and what is different about their nuclei

contain myofibrils at periphery
nuclei are round and larger than nuclei of regular cardiac fibers

25

What is specifically found in the Purkinje fibers

large amounts of glycogen

26

What are the three layers of blood vessels

tunica interna or tunica intima
tunica media
tunica externa or tunica adventitia

27

What are the three parts of the tunica interna

endothelium
basal lamina
subendothelial layer

28

This is the internal elastic membrane of arteries and some arterioles; part of the tunica interna

subendothelial layer

29

This contains rings of smooth muscle cells responsible for vasoconstriction and vasodilation; can also contain sheets or lamellae or laminae of elastin

tunica media

30

This is found in larger vessels and contains the vasa vasorum (vessels of the vessel) and nervi vascularis

tunica externa or tunica adventitia

31

In cross section, which vessel looks more open and which one looks more collapsed

arteries = open
veins = collapsed

32

In arteries, which layers is the thickest

tunica media

33

In veins, which layer is the thickest

tunica externa

34

These are the largest diameter arteries (greater than 10mm)

elastic or conducting arteries (large)

35

What do the large artery wall contain

large amount of elastic fibers which allow for it to expand and recoil propelling blood onward and as a pressure reserve

36

These are the medium sized arteries (2-10mm)

muscular or distributing arteries (medium)

37

What do the walls of the medium sized arteries contain

large amounts of smooth muscle important for regulating blood flow, those in a circular orientation are responsible for vasoconstriction and vasodilation

38

These are arteries 0.1mm to 2mm in diameter with as many as eight layers of smooth muscle

small arteries

39

These are arteries with the smallest diameter 10µm to 100µm; only one or two layers of smooth muscle

arterioles

40

This layer of the large arteries has an inconspicuous internal elastic membrane

tunica intima

41

This layer of the large arteries is the thickest and contains multiple layers of smooth muscle separated by elastic lamellae

tunica media

42

This layer of the large arteries is thin and may contain a vasa vasorum and nervi vascularis

tunica adventitia

43

This layer of the medium arteries is thinner than they of the large arteries and has a prominent internal elastic layer

tunica interna

44

This layer of the medium arteries is the thickest layer consisting of almost entirely of smooth muscle cells separated by elastic material; has a prominent eternal elastic membrane

tunica media

45

This layer of the medium arteries is relatively thick and many contain a vasa vasorum or nervi vascularis

tunica adventitia

46

This layer of the small arteries typically has an internal elastic membrane

tunica intima

47

This layer of the small arteries contains as many as eight layers of smooth muscle

tunica media

48

This layer of the small arteries is thin and ill defined

tunica adventitia

49

This layer of the arterioles may or may not have an internal elastic membrane

tunica intima

50

This layer of the arterioles has only one or two layers of smooth muscle

tunica media

51

This layer of the arterioles is thin and ill defined

tunica adventitia

52

These are the smallest diameter of blood vessels; 4µm-10µm

capillaries

53

What makes up the wall of capillaries

endothelial cells and its basal lamina

54

What is the function of capillaries

allow the exchange of material between the blood and body tissues

55

What are the three types of capillaries

continuous
fenestrated
discontinuous (sinusoidal)

56

Where are continuous capillaries found

in muscle, lung, and CNS

57

What types of cell/vessels are found in continuous capillaries

uninterrupted endothelial cell lining with tight or occluding junction
pinocutotic vessels
may see pericytes

58

Where are fenestrated capillaries found

endocrine glands and at sites of fluid and metabolite absorption

59

What types of cells/vessels are found in fenestrated capillaries

pinocytotic vessels
have oval proes cnned fenestrations

60

Where are discontinuous capillaries found

liver, speen, and bone marrow
larger in diameter and more irregularly shaped

61

What is the name of the flow of blood from an arteriole through a capillary network to a post capillary venule

microcirculation

62

What comprises the microcirculatory bed or microvascular bed

arteriole
capillary network
postcapillary venule

63

What are the two types of vessels in the capillary network

true capillaries
arteriovenous (AV) anastomoses or shunts

64

The more the precapillary sphincters relax and the smooth muscle of the AV shunt contracts, what happens

more blood will pass through the true capillaries in the capillary beds

65

The more the pre capillary sphincters contract and the smooth muscle AV shunts relax, what happens

the more blood will pass through the arteriovenous anastomoses and bypass the true capillaries

66

What are the four types of veins

venule
small veins
medium veins
large veins

67

These are the smallest diameter veins (10µm-100µm) they receive blood from the capillaries

venule

68

This type of venule has an endothelial cell with basal lamina and pericytes; no tunica media or adventitia

postcapillary venule

69

This type of venule posses a tunica media with one or two layers of smooth muscle and a thin tunica adventitia; typically no pericytes

muscular venule

70

This type of vein range from 0.1mm-1mm in diameter and receive blood from muscular venule

small veins

71

This type of vein ranges from 1mm-10mm in diameter and all three layers are present

medium veins

72

This type of vein is large than 10mm in diameter and all three layers are present

large veins

73

This layer of medium veins contains endothelium and its basal lamina, a thin sub endothelial layer with an occasional smooth muscle cell, and in some cases, a thin internal elastic membrane

tuncia intima

74

This layer of the medium veins is thinner than the associated artery, several layers of smooth muscles (mostly circular) with interspersed collagen and elastic fibers

tunica media

75

This layer of the medium veins is thicker than the other ; made of collagen and networks of elastic fibers

tunica adventitia

76

This layer of the large veins is composed of endothelium and its basal lamina, along with a thin sub endothelial layer with some smooth muscle cells

tunica intima

77

This layer of the large veins is relatively thin; circularly arranged smooth muscle cells

tunica media

78

This layer of the large veins is thicker than the others; collagen and elastic fibers with the occasional smooth muscle cell

tunica adventitia

79

Most veins in the limbs have what

valves; thin folds of tunica intima which prevents back flow of blood