Final Histo - Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Histo - Respiratory System Deck (69):
1

What are the three principle functions of the respiratory system; as well as two other functions

air conduction
air filtration
gas exchange (respiration)
speech
olfactory sensation

2

What are the two FUNCTIONAL divisions of the respiratory system

conducting division
respiratory division

3

This division of the functional division of the respiratory system consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bonchi, and bronchioles

conducting division

4

This division of the functional division of the respiratory system consists of the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and aveoli

respiratory division

5

This division of the functional division of the respiratory system deals mostly with the air passageways to and in the lungs

conducting division

6

This division of the functional division of the respiratory system is where gas exchange takes place

respiratory division

7

These blood vessels enter the lung with the bronchi and branch as they follow the bronchiole tree

pulmonary blood vessels; from right side of the heart

8

Where do the pulmonary vessels end up

with the pulmonary capillaries in contact with the alveoli; the primary site of gas exchange

9

What is meant by the air being conditioned as it passes through the air passages

warming, moistening, and the removal of particulate materials

10

What type of secretions play a significant role in conditioning

mucous and serous
it moistens the air, traps particles, and prevents dehydration of the epithelium

11

Where does the mucous of the respiratory system come from

goblet cells and mucous secreting glands

12

This is located on the respiratory epithelium and its job is to sweep the mucous with the trapped particulate matter toward the pharynx to be swallowed

cilia

13

What type of epithelium is respiratory epithelium

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

14

What type of cells are found in respiratory epithelium

ciliated columnar cells
goblet cells
basal cells

15

This is a loose cognitive tissue layer containing blood vessels which warm the air and mucous glands

lamina propria

16

This is a connective tissue layer slightly denser than lamina propia containing blood vessels and glands

submucosa

17

This is composed of connective tissue that binds component to adjacent structures

adventitia

18

This connects nasal and oral cavities to larynx and esophagus and is a passageway for food and air

pharynx

19

What type of epithelium is found in the pharynx

respiratory epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium

20

What are the divisions of the pharynx

nasopharynx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx

21

Which divisions of the pharynx are a food and air passageway? strictly an air passageway?

food and air = oropharynx and laryngopharynx
air only = nasopharynx

22

What type of tissue is found in the nasopharynx

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

23

What type of tissue is found in the oropharynx and laryngopharyx

nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

24

This is a passageway for air between the laryngopharynx and trachea; conducts air and serves as the speech organ

larynx

25

What type of epithelium covers the larynx

respiratory epithelium

26

What type of epithelium covers the vocal cords and epiglottis

nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

27

What is the purpose of the cartilages of the larynx

maintaining open airway
sound production
valve during swallowing

28

What cartilages of the larynx are made out of hyaline cartilage

thyroid
cricoid

29

What cartilages of the larynx are made out of elastic cartilage

epiglottis
cuneiform
corniculate

30

What cartilage of the larynx is made out of both hyaline and elastic cartilage

arytenoid cartilages

31

This is the short flexible air tube, 10 cm long

trachea

32

What is used to keep the trachea patent (clear)

C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage; the C opens to the posterior

33

How many C shaped cartilaginous rings are found in humans

16-20

34

What does the tracheal cartilages and tracheal is muscle separate

submucosa from adventitia

35

What does the trachea divide into at the end

two main (primary) bronchi

36

What are the wall/layers of the trachea

mucosa
submucosa
cartilaginous layer with tracheal is muscle
adventitia

37

What type of mucosa is found in the trachea

respiratory epithelium on a thick basement membrane
lamina propria with lots of elastic fibers

38

What type of submucosa is found in the trachea

relatively loose connective tissue with submucosal glands

39

What is the flow of air from the primary (main) bronchi

secondary (lobar) bronchi
tertiary (segmental) bronchi
bronchioles
terminal bronchioles

40

As the conducting system branches and the diameter becomes smaller, what else happens

amount of cartilage decreases
amount of smooth muscle increases
height of lining epithelium increases

41

What is the diameter of the bronchioles

1mm or less

42

Which primary bronchi is shorter, wider, and more vertical therefore a place where objects are more likely to get aspirated into

right main bronchus

43

Which lung has two lobar bronchi

left

44

Which lung has three lobar bronchi

right

45

How many bronchopulmonary segments (segmental bronchi) does the left lung have

8-10

46

How many bronchopulmonary segments (segmental bronchi) does the right lung have

10

47

What is special about the bronchopulmonary segments

They have their own blood supply and connective tissue septa; which makes it convenient for surgical resection of a segment

48

As the bronchi enter the lungs, what happens to the cartilage rings

they are replaced by plates/slivers of hyaline cartilage and disappear when it becomes a bronchiole

49

As the bronchi enter the lungs, what happens to the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi

it increases as cartilage disappears; forming a complete circumferential layer called the muscularis

50

What happens to the pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells as diameter of the bronchi decreases

the height decreases

51

What makes up the mucosa of the bronchi

respiratory epithelium; primary bronchi hace a basement membrane
lamina propria

52

What is found in the submucosa of larger bronchi

glands

53

What changes does the epithelium undergo as it transitions into bronchioles

changes from ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium to ciliated simple columnar epithelium to ciliated simple cubodial epithelium

54

These are present in the largest of bronchioles but not present in terminal bronchioles

goblet cells

55

What type of epithelium lines the terminal bronchioles

ciliated simple cubodial epithelium

56

The terminal bronchioles lead to what

respiratory bronchioles

57

From the terminal bronchioles, where does the air flow

respiratory bronchioles
alveolar ducts
alveolar sacs
alveoli

58

Clara cells of the terminal bronchiole does what

secretes lipoprotein that prevents bronchiolar wall adhesion

59

These are a small bundle of cubodial epithelium on a bundle of eosinophilic material, has both ciliated and clara cells

respiratory bronchiole

60

These are elongated airways have almost no walls in a tube form; rings of smooth muscle are present in the knob-like interalveolar septa

alveolar ducts

61

These are spaces surrounded by clusters of alveoli at the termination of the alveolar duct, a common opening of alveoli

alveolar sacs

62

There are between 150-250 million per adult lung, each is approximately 0.2mm in diameter

alveoli

63

This type of alveolar cells are called alveolar surface epithelium cells; squamous cells; lines 95% of alveolar surface

type 1 alveolar cells

64

These are called septal cells; cubodial cells; covering approx. 5% of alveolar surface

type 2 alveolar cells

65

What does type 2 alveolar cells discharge

phospholipid called surfactant which keeps the alveoli from collapsing with successive exhalation

66

These are known as dust cells, can be found in the connective tissue of septum and in the air space of alveoli; phagocytize inhaled particulate matter and RBCd

alveolar macrophages

67

These compose the wall of capillary

endothelial cells

68

These produce elastic fibers

fibroblasts

69

What is the barrier of the respiratory membrane between the alveolus and blood of the capillary

surface lining and cytoplasm of the alveolar cells
fused basal laminae of the alveolar cells and capillary endothelial cells
cytoplasm of the endothelial cells