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Flashcards in Final - Lecture 1 6 Deck (27):
1

Name some complications that may come with diabetes.

Heart disease
stroke
kidney damage
nerve damage
eye damage
foot damage
hearing damage

2

What percentage of the population has diabetes?

9%

3

What portion of the population has prediabetes?

1/3

4

What trend does the percentage of the population with diabetes change over the years?

Diabetes has increased since the mid 1990s

5

What are the risk factors associated with diabetes?

1. Aging (>25% of people over 65 are diabetic)
2. Excess weight (>80% of diabetics are overweight or obese)
3. High sugar intake

6

What test measures blood glucose in diabetic and nondiabetic persons after consuming 75 g test load of glucose

Glucose tolerance test

7

What is the HbA-1C (A1c) test?

A measure of the amount of glycation of hemoglobin, which shows a positive correlation with blood glucose levels

8

What is Diabetes mellitus Type I caused by? What is the appropriate treatment for this?

Also known as insulin-dependent diabetes. It is caused by the loss of the insulin producing beta cells. Insulin injections can be used to remedy it.

9

What is Diabetes mellitus Type II caused by? hat is the appropriate treatment for this?

Caused by increased insulin production to compensate for insulin insensitivity, eventually leading to death of beta cells. Treatment includes diet therapy and insulin medication.

10

Which type of diabetes is more prevalent?

Type II (accounts for 90% of diabetics)

11

What are some symptoms for type I diabetes?

frequent urination and excessive thirst
weight loss leading to thin physique
Production of ketone bodies and ketoacidosis
Impaired immune and vascular system

12

If the symptoms for type II diabetes take more time to manifest, what is often used to diagnose?

It is associated with things like obesity and high blood pressure

13

What are some symptoms of Type II?

1. eventual beta-cell death leading to a drop in insulin production
2. Low insulin leading to high blood glucose
3. Prolonged high glucose -> CVD & microvascular problems (retina, kidney and peripheral tissue damage) -> blindness, kidney failure & amputation
Poor insulin response
4. Poor insulin response -> increased risk of alzheimers
5. Liver malfunction -> glucose released even when blood glucose is high.

14

In which type of diabetes does genetics play a more important role?

Type II

15

What are normal levels of blood glucose after fasting from glucose (mg/dL) and 2 hr after consuming glucose (mg/dL), and HbA-1c (%)

Fasting Glucose

16

What are levels of blood glucose for the condition "Impaired fasting glycemia" after fasting from glucose (mg/dL) and 2 hr after consuming glucose (mg/dL), and HbA-1c (%)

Fasting Glucose 100-126
2 hr glucose

17

What are levels of blood glucose for the condition "Impaired glucose tolerance" after fasting from glucose (mg/dL) and 2 hr after consuming glucose (mg/dL), and HbA-1c (%)

Fasting Glucose

18

What are levels of blood glucose for a diabetic after fasting from glucose (mg/dL) and 2 hr after consuming glucose (mg/dL), and HbA-1c (%)

Fasting Glucose >126
2 hr glucose >200
HbA-1c >6.4

19

What are some meds for Type II?

Weight loss, HBP, Cholesterol lowering drugs
Drugs that reduce high blood sugar: Metformin & Avandia

20

What does Avandia do and what are some side effects?

It reduces insulin resistance in the muscles
Side effects include and increased risk of hear attack by 30 % and increased risk of Macular edema (destroys retina leading to blindness) by 130%

21

What impact does bariatric surgery have on diabetes and who can get the surgery?

The surgery reversed Type 2 diabetes in 3/4 of obese patients compared to the 15% of conventional therapies. Decreased the risk of getting Type 2 diabetes by 80% over 15 years. Only morbidly obese people should be getting this surgery.

22

Which fruit shows the most impact on decreasing the risk of diabetes?

blueberry consumption shows a correlation with a big decrease in risk of diabetes (30%)

23

What impact does increasing red meat consumption have on risk for diabetes?

An increase of .5 servings a day is correlated with a 50% increase in risk.

24

What are the different classes of vegetarians?

Non vege (normal diet)
Semi vege (reduced beef and poultry or fish)
Pesco vege (No beef or veggie)
Lacto ovo (No beef, poultry or fish)
Vega (No beef, poultry, fish, dairy or egg)

25

What diet mentioned in class reduced T2D risk?

Reduced intake of animal-based foods

26

What lifestyle changes could redyce risk of T2D?

> 7% weight loss & > 150 minutes of physical activity per week

27

Does med or lifestyle change have more of an impact on reducing diabetes risk?

Lifestyle