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Flashcards in Final: Male Repro Deck (51):
1

What is the progression of spermatogenesis?

Primordial germ cells --> spermatogonia --> primary Spermatocytes --> Secondary spermatocytes ---> Spermatids -----> mature sperm

2

Where are sertoli cells located?

within seminiferous tubules.

3

_____ _______ act as nurse cells (sustentacular cells) that surround primary spermatocytes and get them through the process of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis.

Nurse cells

4

What is spermiogenesis

differentiation of spermatids into mature sperm

5

What is spermiogenesis

differentiation of spermatids into mature sperm

6

What forms the acrosome

proacrosomal nesicles coalesce

7

what does the acrosome contain?

hyaluronidase and proteolytic enzymes

8

What does the acrosome cap?

the nucleus

9

What happens to the centrioles during spermiogenesis

they migrate to the side of nucleus opposite acrosome.

10

In spermigenesis what organize the flagellum

distal centriole

11

where do mitochondria locate in spermiogenesis

move to base of forming flagellum and wrap around it.

12

What is the residual body in spermiogenesis

excess cytoplasm is sloughed off

13

Where are sperm cells stored until ejaculation?

epididymis

14

how long does passage through the epididymis take?

several days

15

Where are the cells of leydig found?

interstitial spaces in testes

16

what do the cells of leydig secrete?

testosterone

17

what do the cells of leydig secrete?

testosterone

18

What stimulates the secretion of testosterone in the cells of leydig?

luteinizing hormone secreted by anterior pituitary-
-FSH is also necessary for spermatogenesis

19

Where are the seminal vesicles located?

paired, behind prostate.

20

What is the structure of the seminal vesicles?

a loculated tube lined with secretory epithelium

21

What does the mucoid material secreted by seminal vesicles contain?

Fructose
citric acid
additional nutrients
prostaglandins
fibrinogen

22

during emission and ejaculation contents of seminal vesicles are emptied into?

ejaculatory ducts containing sperm.

23

during emission and ejaculation contents of seminal vesicles are emptied into?

ejaculatory ducts containing sperm.

24

during emission and ejaculation contents of seminal vesicles are emptied into?

ejaculatory ducts containing sperm.

25

what percentage of semen is from seminal vesicles?

60% of total volume

26

What is the role of fructose for sperm

energy production

27

___________ make cervical mucous more receptive to sperm movement and may cause retro-peristaltic contractions of uterus and fallopian tubes.

Prostaglandins

28

What percentage of the semen volume is from the prostate gland?

30% of total volume

29

What does the prostate gland secrete?

a milky fluid containing calcium, citrate ions phosphate ions, clotting factor, and profibrinolysin

30

How can the prostate gland fluid help to neutralize acidity of other seminal fluids and vaginal secretions of the female?

it is slightly alkaline

31

Define Androgens

any steroid hormone that has masculinizing effects

32

What are 3 androgens

testosterone
dihydrotestosterone
androstenedione

33

Androgens can be synthesized in testes and adrenal glands from what?

cholesterol and Acetyl-CoA

34

When is testosterone almost nonexistent

during childhood, between newborn and adult

35

97% of testosterone is loosely bound with ________ or tightly bound with ______ _______

albumin, beta globulin

36

how long does testosterone circulate in the blood?

30 minutes to several hours

37

what are the fates of testosterone?

transferred to tissues or degraded to inactive product that are subsequently secreted.

38

Testosterone that enters tissues mostly converted to ________, especially in prostate and in fetal external genitalia

dihydrotestosterone

39

What is non-fixed testosterone converted to? where does this occur

androsterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in the liver

40

What is non-fixed testosterone converted to? where does this occur

androsterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in the liver

41

after conversion of testosterone in the liver, what can it be conjugated to? how is it secreted?

conjugated as either glucuronides or sulfates. Excreted into gut via bile or urine via kidneys

42

What hormone can increase reabsorption of sodium in distal kidney tubules?

testosterone

43

Where does testosterone come from in females?

adrenal glands

44

Where does testosterone come from in females?

adrenal glands

45

what is produced by neurons located in arcuate nuclei of hypothalamus?

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (AKA LH releasing hormone)
a 10-AA peptide

46

how is gonadotropin releasing hormone transported to the anterior pituitary

hypothalamic-hypophyseal system.

47

What does gonadoptropin releasing hormone stimulate?

the anterior pituitary to produce LH and FSH

48

What is a glycoprotein that activates cAMP second messenger system in target tissue?

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

49

What causes leydig cells to secrete testosterone?

Luteinizing Hormone

50

What effect does testosterone have on hypothalamus

a negative feedback effect.

51

what is secreted by sertoli cells that inhibits secretion of FSH by anterior pituitary?

inhibin
-can also inhibit secretion of GnRH to a lesser extent