Final Neuro - Olfactory and Visual Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Neuro - Olfactory and Visual Systems Deck (35):
1

What cells are use to detect odors

cell bodies of the primary afferent neurons; neuroepithelium

2

How can the olfactory nerve be damaged following head trauma

the nerve passes through the cirbiform place, if the brain shifts then it could cut the fibers there

3

Fibers of which neurons make up the olfactory nerve

bipolar primary afferent neurons (SSA)

4

Fibers of which distinctly shaped neuron make up the olfactory tract

mitral cells

5

What structures make up the primary olfactory cortex

piriform cortex
posterior orbitofrontal cortex via mediodorsal nucleus (MD) of the thalamus

6

What are the specific areas of the piriform cortex that are involved with the primary olfactory cortex

uncus
periamygdaloid cortex
anterior entorhinal cortex

7

What effect does the pupil have on images as they pass through it

it inverts the images

8

This field is what the patient is seeing

visual field

9

This field is the region of the retina onto which the image is projected

retinal field

10

These regions provide the best color and detail of an image

fovea centralis
macula lutea; cones

11

These regions provide the best detection of movement and light intensity (black and white)

peripheral retina
rods

12

What is the region of the retina in which we are blind

optic disc; point of exit of ganglion cell axons

13

Which retinal neuron gives rise to fibers to the optic nerve

ganglion cells

14

What are the three structure in which the primary visual fibers terminate

amygdala
lateral geniculate body
visual cortex (occipital lobe); primary, secondary, and tertiary

15

What do the fibers that terminate in the amygdala carry

emotionally significant images

16

What do the fibers that terminate in the lateral geniculate body carry

visual information

17

What do the fibers that terminate in the primary, secondary, and tertiary cortices carry

primary; enchantment of edges
secondary/tertiary; color and stereopsis

18

What is retinoptic organization

point in the field of vision can be traced to an area of the visual cortex

19

Where is the middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) visual areas located

border zone between occipital and temporal/parietal cortex

20

What is the function of the middle temporal (MT) visual area

movement
direction
velocity

21

What is the function of the medial superior temporal (MST) visual area

perceived motion of stationary targets as observer moves

22

Where is the fusiform face area (FFC) located

fusiform gyrus; inferior occipital-temporal cortex
predominately right sided

23

What is the function of the fusiform face area (FFC)

recognition of faces; human and animal

24

What would the effect of a lesion be it on the optic nerve

unilateral blindness

25

What would the effect of a lesion be it on the optic chiasm

bitemporal hemianopsia (loss of peripheral vision of both eyes)
or nasal hemianopsia (loss of inner (nasal) vision from 1 eye)

26

What would the effect of a lesion be it on the optic tract

homonymous hemianopsia; loss of the left side of each eye or the right side of each eye

27

What would the effect of a lesion be it on the geniculocalcarine tract

homonymous hemianopia; if both sides of the tract are affects; is not, then its quadrant based

28

What would the effect(s) of a lesion be it on the primary visual cortex

blindsight; can still recognize objects using vision
Anton symdrome; denial of blindness

29

What would the effect of a lesion be it on the fuciform face area

prosopangnosia; impaired ability to recognize people based upon image of their face

30

These cells are parvocellualr cells are help identify "what" an object is; in association with cones

midget cells

31

These cells are magnocellular cells and help to locate "where" an object is; in associated with rods

parasol cells

32

This is the inability to recognize objects based upon vision, but know what the object is used for due to loss involving secondary and tertiary visual cortex

visual agnosia

33

This is blind due to loss of primary visual cortex, although the patient denies their blindness

anton syndrome

34

This involves visual hallucinations late in the day, amusing or disturbing but not emotional, due to age and reduced vision

Charles Bonnet syndrome

35

This is the impaired ability to recognize people based on an image of a face, resulting from a lesion to the FFA on right side

prosopagnosia