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Flashcards in Final Remaining Deck (67):
1

Utilization behavior

exaggerated tendency for one's behavior to be determined by the external environment

behavior automatically determined by salient stimuli in environment

damage to IFG (Inferior Frontal Gyrus)

2

Imitation Behavior

Copying environmental stimuli

Utilization behavior

3

Environmental Dependency Syndrome

Behaviors determined by environment as opposed to willful action

Damage to IFG (Inferior Frontal Gyrus)

Damage to Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG)

4

Inferior Frontal Gyrus

damage to IFG demonstrate utilization behavior

will spontaneously mimic actions

5

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

Brenda Milner identified dPFC role in cognitive control through Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST)

perseverative error: error of inhibition
patient "can't stop himself"
could verbalize proper response but couldn't could not modify skeletomotor responses accordingly
recruit epilepsy patients pre/post unilateral cortical incision

perseverative error: error of inhibition
patient "can't stop himself"
could verbalize proper response but couldn't could not modify skeletomotor responses accordingly

6

Pavlovian Threat Conditioning

Classical conditioning
US, CS + NS pairing, CS alone elicits CR,

Amygdala plays role in learning fear response

7

Le Doux

Threat processing circuit

Lateral Nucleus = association formation
Central Nucleus = downstream response

plasticity in lateral nucleus is what allows it to encode and store the associations between the CS and US

Amygdala = structure = consists of several nuclei

The sensory information from the CS (all stimuli) goes to thalamus —> sent to lateral nucleus (labeled input nucleus of amygdala bc takes in all stimuli CS + US) —plasticity in lateral nucleus is what allows it to encode and store the associations between the CS and US; in this nucleus the association is being formed; if you lesion the LN only you will prevent fear conditioning —> associations then get transferred to central nucleus “referred to as output nucleus” bc takes info from LN and sends downstream to parts of brain responsible for fear response; you’re not preventing the association from being formed, you’re preventing the information from going downstream

8

Extinction

Originally thought to involve “unlearning” of the CS-US association; but evidence suggests original pathway remains intact; extinction learning--CS is actually associated with something neutral; active form of learning

EXTINCTION LEARNING IS AN IMPLICIT FORM OF EMOTION REGULATION

Current understanding of extinction posits that it involves new learning of a CS-No US association

COMPETES WITH PREVIOUSLY LEARNED CS-US ASSOCIATION

9

Reinstatement

Exposure to US -> Reinstatement

Reemergence of CR --> Original association between CS and US must remain intact following extinction

10

Renewal

Presentation of CS in new context -> Renewal

Reemergence of CR --> Original association between CS and US must remain intact following extinction

11

Spontaneous Recovery

Passage of time -> Spontaneous Recovery

Reemergence of CR --> Original association between CS and US must remain intact following extinction

12

Prelimbic Cortex

PL
in rats
crucial in fear expression
homologous to dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)

13

Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex

dACC
in humans
crucial for fear expression
homologous to prelimbic cortex in rats

14

Infralimbic

IL
in rats
crucial in extinction
homologous to ventralmedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)

15

Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex

vmPFC
in humans
crucial for extinction

16

Homologous structures in rodents and humans in fear conditioning and extinction

prelimbic cortex (rats) = dACC dorsal anterior cingulate c
==> promote fear expression, oppose extinction

infralimbic cortex (rats) = vmPFC ventromedial prefrontal c
==> inhibit fear expression, promote extinction

17

Quirk rodent experiment

lesioned IL in rodents (homologous to vmPFC in humans)

does not interfere with extinction on day 1
interferes with retrieval

on same day, you don’t see huge change; prominent differences show up on day 2; it’s as if they never learned extinction, only retained threat learning

18

Implications for extinction process

Functions as a memory...contains three steps
1. acquisition
2. consolidation
3. retrieval

***retrieval of extinction memory impaired on day 2

19

Process Model of Emotional Regulation

Outline of the process of experiencing emotion according to appraisal theories

start with a situation that could elicit emotion if you attend to the aspects of the environment —> once you attend to something, it depends on the meaning/appraisal so place on something, that determines your emotion generation

What enables us to change the meaning that emotional stimuli have to us?
1. situation selection
2. situation modification
3. attentional deployment
4. cognitive change

20

Cognitive Reappraisal

down-regulating negative emotion

meta-analysis task --> bc volitional action, lateral regions more involved

21

Circadian Timing

- Operates over the 24 h light-dark cycle

- Drives metabolic and behavioral rhythms
-- sleep
-- wakefulness
-- appetite
-- metabolic and reproductive fitness

22

Millisecond Timing

Subsecond range

used for speech, music, motor control

23

Interval Timing

Seconds-to-minutes range

used for anticipating future events, organizing behavior, decision making

24

Verbal Time Estimation Task

(Participants verbally estimate duration of the square on screen)

25

Temporal Reproduction Task

Reproduce the duration themselves

Participants are required to press the spacebar once to initiate their time estimates and then press once again when they think that the presentation duration of the former square (e.g., 3 s) has elapsed

26

Duration Discrimination Task

2+ stimuli presented
subject may be asked to make a judgment as to whether the longer interval was the first or second

27

Behavioral Properties of Timing Ability

Accuracy - close to actual

Precision - close to each other

28

Accuracy

On average, we are highly accurate in our temporal judgments

Linear relationship between target durations and time estimates

Close to actual

29

Precision

Error in time estimates grow proportional to the timed interval

Trial-to-trial variability is constant within an individual

close to each other

30

Scalar Property of Timing

scalar time: errors vary linearly with estimated durations

Scalar property/Weber's law: one of the hallmark signatures of interval timing that describes the linear relationship between target durations and the standard deviation of duration judgments, indicating that variability in timing behavior grows proportional to the mean of the interval being estimated. In this sense, duration discrimination is relative rather than absolute, that is time perception is like a rubber band in that it can be stretched to produce time-scale invariance across different durations

31

Factors Affecting Subjective Time Judgements

1. Affective state - emotion-induced activation temporarily increases the speed of an internal clock (thereby leading to longer perceived durations)

2. Age: older vs. younger adults (time passes more quickly for older adult)

3. Health status: psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, schizophrenia) and neurodegenerative conditions (e.g., Parkinson’s disease)

4. Stimulus properties and context
- Cognitive load (e.g., increasing the number of timed intervals) accuracy of time estimation deteriorated with cognitive load; overestimation of time
- Dynamic vs. static stimuli

32

Neural and Physiological Substrates of Timing

Distributed neural network involved in forming and updating temporal expectations

dlPFC (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex)
anterior insula
vPM (ventral premotor area)
ACC (anterior cingulate cortex)

33

Cortico-striatal-cerebellar Circuit

?

34

Striatal Subpopulations

Striatal subpopulation dynamics predict duration judgments

- Trained rats to estimate and categorize the duration of time intervals as longer or shorter than 1.5 seconds

- When rats mistook shorter interval for a long one, population activity had traveled farther down path than would normally (and vice-versa)

- Suggests that variability in subjective estimates of the passage of time might arise from variability in the speed of striatal neuron’s changing patterns of activity

- Lesioning striatum impaired rat’s ability to classify interval durations altogether

- striatal ensembles drive subjects’ judgments of duration,
Individual neurons show significant short and long preferences

===> Striatal subpopulation dynamics predict duration judgments


___________
The striatum encodes reinforcement learning and procedural motion, and consequently is required to represent temporal information precisely, which then guides actions in proper sequence.

dorso-medial striatal neurons = time-relevant neurons
dlPFC (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex)

35

Time Cells in Hippocampus

Hippocampal neurons that fire at successive moments in temporally structured experiences

different striatal neurons are active at different time points

Hippocampal time cells fire at successive moments in temporally structured experiences.

36

Pupillary Indices of Temporal Expectation

Temporal expectations in the autonomous nervous system (ANS)

Human pupil size

Temporal prediction
- Letter discrimination task
- Delays to visual target presentations were manipulated

Pupillary response tracks temporal information
- Dilatory pupillary activity started earlier when the targets were expected to appear sooner after trial onset
- Time-based information processing in the ANS

37

Neural correlates of timing ability

No dedicated region associated with timing

Basal ganglia (BG) as the locus for the representation of temporal information
- Striatum, a main input area of the BG, has been implicated for timing supra-second intervals

38

Supra-second and sub-second intervals

Sub-second intervals are mainly processed by automatic timing, which does not require attentional modulation, whereas supra-second durations are under the control of higher cognitive functions such as attention and working memory

39

Mouse Duration Discrimination Task

time as encoded by striatal populations ran faster or slower when rats judged a duration as longer or shorter, respectively. These results demonstrate that the speed with which striatal population state changes supports the fundamental ability of animals to judge the passage of time

40

Mouse Duration Discrimination Task

time as encoded by striatal populations ran faster or slower when rats judged a duration as longer or shorter, respectively. These results demonstrate that the speed with which striatal population state changes supports the fundamental ability of animals to judge the passage of time

- Trained rats to estimate and categorize the duration of time intervals as longer or shorter than 1.5 seconds
- When rats mistook shorter interval for a long one, population activity had traveled farther down path than would normally (and vice-versa)
- Suggests that variability in subjective estimates of the passage of time might arise from variability in the speed of striatal neuron’s changing patterns of activity
- Lesioning striatum impaired rat’s ability to classify interval durations altogether
- striatal ensembles drive subjects’ judgments of duration

- Individual neurons show significant short and long preferences !!!
- Different striatal neurons are active at different time points

41

Mouse Duration Discrimination Task

time as encoded by striatal populations ran faster or slower when rats judged a duration as longer or shorter, respectively. These results demonstrate that the speed with which striatal population state changes supports the fundamental ability of animals to judge the passage of time

- Trained rats to estimate and categorize the duration of time intervals as longer or shorter than 1.5 seconds
- When rats mistook shorter interval for a long one, population activity had traveled farther down path than would normally (and vice-versa)
- Suggests that variability in subjective estimates of the passage of time might arise from variability in the speed of striatal neuron’s changing patterns of activity
- Lesioning striatum impaired rat’s ability to classify interval durations altogether
- striatal ensembles drive subjects’ judgments of duration

- Individual neurons show significant short and long preferences !!!
- Different striatal neurons are active at different time points

42

fMRI Timing Test

- Estimation of the time-of-arrival of a pendulum
- Make a key press when the pendulum reaches its maximum height

- Manipulation: Induce unpredictable changes in speed of the pendulum’s swing from one semi-period to the next
Periodic –predictable
Non-periodic -unpredictable

- More extensive activation in non-periodic test trials
- Distributed neural network involved in forming and updating temporal expectations

dlPFC (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex)
anterior insula
vPM (ventral premotor area)
ACC (anterior cingulate cortex)

43

Gouvea Rat Timing

- Trained rats to estimate and categorize the duration of time intervals as longer or shorter than 1.5 seconds

- When rats mistook shorter interval for a long one, population activity had traveled farther down path than would normally (and vice-versa)

- Suggests that variability in subjective estimates of the passage of time might arise from variability in the speed of striatal neuron’s changing patterns of activity

- Lesioning striatum impaired rat’s ability to classify interval durations altogether

- striatal ensembles drive subjects’ judgments of duration,
Individual neurons show significant short and long preferences

===> Striatal subpopulation dynamics predict duration judgments

44

Neural correlates of timing

- There is no dedicated brain region that is associated with the timing function
- Distributed neural network subserving temporal cognition

There is no dedicated time-keeping mechanism in the brain
The involvement of very large and distributed neural networks

CNS + ANS (pupillary dilation)

45

Coma

state of unarousable consciousness
failure of ‘ascending reticular system

looks like someone is alseep but can't wake them up; can't respond to external stimuli

46

Vegetative State

state of arousal after coming out of coma

brain/physiological system is a little bit more 'awake' but no meaningful interaction

also referred to as Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome

Vegetative state: reticular activating system is INTACT; fiber tracts are intact; conclusion is that reticular activating system is necessary for consciousness but not sufficient for consciousness

47

Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome

aka vegetative state

state of arousal after coming out of coma

brain/physiological system is a little bit more 'awake' but no meaningful interaction

48

Minimally Conscious State

half the time in vegetative, half the time responsive (conscious)

49

Locked-In Syndrome

you are conscious, but cannot respond to external stimuli

Implication: patient is aware and intentional

50

REM Sleep

Rapid eye movement sleep

Reticulate system is active during REM

More of a conscious state

The body's internal function is more active during REM sleep. Heart rate is faster and more irregular, blood pressure rises and breathing is quicker and more irregular

Dreams occur here

51

Non-REM Sleep

Unaware and unconscious


Brain waves are typically slow and of high voltage, the breathing and heart rate are slow and regular, the blood pressure is low, and the sleeper is relatively still

52

Recovery of Consciousness

Recovery of conscious awareness and cognitive function following severe brain injuries can occur over surprisingly long time intervals of months, years and rarely decade

53

Awareness

What determines the contents of our conscious
awareness at any given moment?
==ATTENTION

Knowledge or perception of a situation or fact

54

Change Blindness

Not consciously aware of the change

55

Visual Masking

If you put a visual white noise screen being presented, if it's close enough in time you won't have conscious experience of seeing the word

the mask is inhibiting your ability to notice the stimulus; has to be close in time

implicit memory for the word -- repetition suppression: recall "note" faster if seen it before, even if don't consciously remember seeing it

The fusiform gyrus= part of the temporal lobe and occipital lobe
drastically reduced during subliminal messaging

56

V1 test

Neuronal Correlates of Perception in Early Visual Cortex

Looking in V1 —> presented noise structures, some with grating in it, difficult to identify whether or not grating was present

Hit = yes grating, should activate V1 neurons (O) + conscious of that grating (S)
Correct Rejection = no grating, no V1 neuron activation (O) + no conscious recall (S)
Miss = yes grating, V1 neuron activation (O) + no conscious recall (S)
False Alarm = no grating, no V1 neuron activation (O) + conscious recall (S)

BOLD Activation --> much more activation in hits than in misses; V1 not telling you just what is in environment; hits and misses should be same if objective;
false alarms led to almost same level of activity as hits

V1 activity modulated by conscious experience
--> all about your interpretation of experience

57

Locked-In Owen experiment

Spoken speech —> temporal lobe (speech)
Ambiguous speech —> additional activation in frontal, indicating semantic processing [creek, beam, ceiling]

Imagine playing tennis —> motor cortex
Imagine walking through childhood home —> PPA, parietal (navigation)

Hearing what is being said and consciously responding to it

58

Attentional Blink

Attentional Blink Experiment
Presented with serial visual presentation
1. Identify the white stimulus?
2. Was there an x?
Percent correct as function in relation to relative serial position
Performance drops right after onset of T1, then returns to normative levels
—> A tiny temporal window after onset of target 1 in which you are unable to identify the second stimulus

Application: 100-400 after surprise

59

Parietal Cortex
R-Damage, L-Damage

Damage to R parietal lobe, neglect to left visual field -- doesn't make it into awareness, not conscious of left side of space -- no reporting of conscious awareness

Right P cortex is typically damaged in cases of visual neglect
L parietal cortex is not important in consciousness of external world, but instead in internal consciousness; lack of self-awareness?

Right damage - hemispheric neglect
Left damage - lack of self-awareness?

60

Massimini Cortical Connectivity Study

Break down of Cortical Effective Connectivity
How the brain is physiologically different during awake and during non-REM sleep
Stimulating TMS over part of brain —> how brain reacts to stimulation

During wakefulness, you get activity in site of activation that then moves bilaterally to nearby areas [doesn’t stay localized in one area] ability of activation in one brain area to activate other regions is much greater during wakefulness than when sleeping

In non-REM sleep, same robust activation in stimulation site but doesn’t travel in brain (the brain is inhibited from cross-regional connectivity) —> local activity might be intact, but consciousness requires the areas to communicate with each other

LOCALIZED ACTIVITY IN SLEEP/UNCONSCIOUS vs. WIDESPREAD ACTIVITY WHEN AWAKE/CONSCIOUS

61

Neural Correlates of Consciousness

Global metabolism is not diagnostic about consciousness
The overall level of activity of a brain area doesn’t seem to be indicative of level of consciousness, except with reticular formation system (needed but still not enough)

Effective connectivity may be a more sensitive measure —> how distributed and long-range information is being integrated

62

Gorilla Video Implications

Too much environmental stimuli for us to process

Selecting from the over 2 million bits of auditory and visual stimuli that you can process at any given moment

Attention gives you spotlight to the world

63

Gorilla Video Implications

Too much environmental stimuli for us to process

Selecting from the over 2 million bits of auditory and visual stimuli that you can process at any given moment

Attention gives you spotlight to the world

64

Tong Paper

Both stimuli present in both situations (both faces and places)
Consciously aware of only one at a time

When aware of face, increased FFA activation; when aware of house, PPA activation

65

Evidence for Extinction Learning

Exposure to US -> Reinstatement

Presentation of CS in new context -> Renewal

Passage of time -> Spontaneous Recovery

66

Brenda Milner

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
Wisconsin Card Sorting Task
Perservative Error = error of inhibition

67

Brenda Milner Error

Perservative error = error of inhbitiion