Final Review #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Review #2 Deck (55):
1

Functions of the Urinary System

-remove waste from bloodstream
-storage and excretion of urine
-regulation of blood pressure and volume

2

Which kidney is higher, right or left?

left by about 2 cm

3

Are kidneys surrounded and suspended by fat?

yes, mesentery

4

How many nephrons do you have per kidney?

1 million

5

Do you have more cortical or juxtamedullary nephrons?

cortical (85%)

6

Another name for the glomerular capsule?

Bowman's capsule

7

Renal corpuscle

site of filtration

8

The ___ arterial is wider and brings filtrate to the glomerular capsule as where the ____ arterial takes filtrated fluid away from the glomerular capsule

-afferent
-efferent

9

pdodcytes

-cells surrounding the fenestrated capillaries
-form filtration slits to help form the filtration membrane

10

What is the purpose of the juxtaglomerular apparatus

-regulate blood volume and pressure

11

What percentage of fluid flows down the renal tubule after filtration?

20%. 80% is sent down the efferent arteriole

12

Equation for urine excretion

Urine = materials filtered - materials reabsorbed + materials secreted

13

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

-reabsorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water
-made up of simple cuboidal epithelium with a lot of microvilli

14

Nephron Loop

reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and water

15

Distal Convoluted Tubule

-secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions
-made up of simple cuboidla epithelium iwht few microvilli
-some water reabsorption

16

Collecting Duct

-variable reabsorption of water
-fluid leaving duct is called urine

17

Three layers of the ureters and what they are made of

-mucosa: transitional epithelium
-muscularis: longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers
-adventitia: connective tissue

18

Layers of urinary bladder and what they are made of

-mucosa: transitional epithelium
-submucosa: dense irregular connective tissue
-muscularis: detrusor muscle
-adventitia: areolar connective tissue

19

The _____ nervous system stimulates micturtiion

parasympathetic

20

The ____ nervous system inhibits micturition

sympathetic

21

3 stages of the micturition reflex

1. stretch receptors in the bladder are stimulated
2. external urethral sphincters relax
3. detrusor and abdominal muscles contract

22

UTI

- could be from multiple types of inflammation" urethritis, cystitis, pyelonepditis
-associated with dysuria, urgency, fever, nausea, back pain

23

Urinary Incontinence

inability to control the expulsion of urine

24

Urolithiasis (kidney stones)

-caused by inadequate fluid intake or diet
-can be associated with small stones that are easily passed or large ones that can become stuck in urinary tract

25

What kind of dry must you take if you have had a kidney transplant? For how long?

-immunosuppressants
-for the rest of your life

26

What is a way that renal failure can be treated?

-donated kidney
-dialysis: blood is cycled through a machine several times a week

27

Functions of the gonads

-produce gametes
-produce sex hormones
-stimulate maturation and development of the reproductive system

28

Steps of puberty:
They hypothalamus increases secretion of ___ which stimulates the release of ___ and ___ from the anterior pituitary

These hormones stimulate the gonads to produce ___ hormones

An increase in these hormones start the process of ___ and ___ maturation

-GnRH
-FSH
-LH

-sex

-gamete
-sexual

29

Perineum is bordered by what 3 structures

-pubic symphysis
-ischial tuberosities
-coccyx

30

The ovarian ___ contains follicles/oocytes

cortex

31

The ovarian The ovarian ___ contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves

medulla

32

Afer puberty, primary oocytes develop into ___

secondary oocytes

33

approximately how many primordial follicles is each female born with

1.5 million

34

T or F. The ovary and oocytes are inactive until after puberty

True

35

How many follicles remain in a female when puberty beins

400,000

36

How many secondary follicles are generally ovulated each month?

1

37

Ovarian Cycle: phase, days, main activity

-follicular phase, days 1-13, FSH and LH stimulate follicle and oocyte maturation

-ovulation, day 14, a surge in LH causes expulsion of the oocyte from the ovary

-luteal phase, days 15-28, follicular cells turn into corpus lutemus which secretes estrogen and progesterone to prepare uterus for implantation

38

What ultimately causes menstruation?

the decrease in hormone release after implantation doesn't occur

39

What structure is the most common site of fertilization in ectopic pregnancy

ampulla

40

what structure helps the secondary oocyte make its way into the oviduct

fimbriae

41

3 layers of the uterine tube wall

-mucosa (ciliated simple columnar epithelium)
-muscularis
-serosa

42

If tubal pregnancy occurs, by what week will it no longer survive? Where else can an ectopic pregnancy occur

-week 8
-abdominal cavity

43

The uterus is found ___ and___ to the bladder

posterior and superior

44

What function does the mucous in he external os perform

-protection because it is resistant to bacteria

45

Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle: phase, days, main activity

-menstrual phase, days 1-5, stratum functional is sloughed off

-proliferative phase, days 6-14, development of the functional layer

-secretory phase, days 15-28, further vascularization of functional layer and development of uterine glands

46

A surge in what hormone causes ovulation to occur

LH

47

What 2 hormones influence the ovarian cycle and how?

-FSH: helps a primary oocyte develop into a secondary oocyte

-LH: helps development of secondary oocyte and also surges to release egg during ovulation

48

What 2 hormones influence the uterine cycle and how?

-estrogen: helps develop the stratum functionalis

-progesteron: vascularize the stratum functionalis

49

What disorder is caused by endometrium that is displaced onto the external surface of organs within the abdominal cavity? symptoms include pain, scaring, and deformities

endometriosis

50

T or F: Displaced endometrium can still grow in response to hormones

True but menses cannot be shed and expelled out of the vagina

51

What 2 hormones effect the mammary glands and in what way?

-prolactin: produce milk
-oxytocin: ejects milk

52

How many lobes and lactiferous ducts does each breast have

about 10-20

53

2 ways woman can be checked for breast cancer

-self breast exam
-mammogram

54

what 2 things can cause an increase in estrogen exposure that causes breast cancer

-early menarche with late menopause
-never having been pregnant

55

What does menopause cause

-cessation of ovulation and menstruation
-reduction in size of uterus and breast
-declination of circulating estrogen and progesterone levels