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Flashcards in Final Review Deck (100)
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1

What is Language?

A set of symbols that represent information

2

Phoneme

Smallest unit of words. The sounds that make them up

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How is language finite?

Languages have a specific set of phonemes, and conventions about how many phonemes can be in a word.

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What is form?

Linguistic expressions likes words and phrases

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Semantic Meaning

Meaning you get from words

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Lexical Semantics

The literal meaning of words

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Pragmatic Meaning

Additional meaning that can be reconstructed from an expression. Ex.: "What's Up"

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Social/Indexical Meaning

Social meaning that can be found in expressions that say something about the speaker. For example, "y'all" indicates a Southern background.

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Metaphorical Meaning

Talking about a concept in terms of some other concept. For example, in the sentence "the prices are rising," price is understood through direction.

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Cultural Meaning

Meaning that changes across cultures. Some languages use the body as a way of describing space and time.

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The link between form and meaning is _____

Fluid

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How phonemes are organized in a language is an example of a ____.

Convention

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Lexicon

A language's set of vocabulary items

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Semantic Categorization

How words are organized. In Mohawk, words for family members categorized differently depending on gender and maternal/paternal connection

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Grammatical Conventions

Way of organizing words systematically. There are also grammatical categorizations.

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Participant

Something that is doing something in a sentence

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Grammatical generalizations are ___

Empirical phenomena

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Arbitrariness

Signals meaning is not inherent to the symbol. There is nothing particularly "mousy" about the word mouse.

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Discreteness

Language built on discrete units, like phonemes. Changing these units would lead to a sudden change in meaning.

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Duality of Patterning

Discrete meaningful units formed from discrete non-meaningful segments. (Words made of phonemes)

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Remoteness

Can be remote in time, space, and reality.

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Combinatorial Patterning

Human language can combine words in different ways to communicate different meanings.

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Form/Display

Some behavior that is performed by an animal with communicative intent.

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Context

The environment and situation the animal is in.

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Response

The effect the message has on others

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Characteristics of bird calls

Typically brief, simple. Communicate intent to alarm or mob

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Characteristics of bird song

Elaborate tunes for territory and mating. Have a specific hierarchal structure.

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Honeybee dances are a system of animal communication that is_____

Combinable

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Typology

Study of different systems of grammatical organization

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Classifier

An element in a language that identifies the category