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Flashcards in Final Review Deck (127):
1

Peter Williams American “circumstances”

  • Immigration
  • British culture
  • slavery and race
  • democracy
  • capitalism
  • nationalism
  • pluralism
  • Americanization

 

2

Beliefs of Roman Catholicism

•Largest branch of christianity

•Jesus as Lord, Trinity, etc. is the same essential beliefs of other Christians:

•Episcopal polity: bishops, archbishops, Pope

•Seven sacraments

3

Protestant Christianity

  • Jesus as Lord, Trinity, etc. are the same essential beliefs of other Christians
  • ¨Protestant:
  • Second largest branch of Christianity
  • Began with Martin Luther, 1517
  • Salvation by grace alone, received through faith alone, from Christ alone, revealed in scripture alone.

4

Bartolomé De Las Casas

  • 1484-1566.
  • Once owned Indian slave plantation
  • reformed himself then supported the Indians
  • wrote about the history of the Indies and the abuse of the indians
  • demanded respect for Indians intelligence and capacity to learn Christianity
  • briefly stopped Indian slavery by encouraging Spain to pass the New Laws in 1542

5

Junípero Serra

  • 1769-1784
  • founded the first 9 Franciscan missions in California
  • Proved controversial
    • demonstrated unworthyness by self flagelation
    • punished Indians who rejected Christianity
    • Violence against attacking Indians
    • Beatified in 1988

6

Jean de Brébeuf

  • 1593-1649
  • Jesuit missionary leader
  • Instructed Jesuits to:

    • never keep them waiting

    • eat what they offer you

    • do not ask many questions

    • do not “be ceremonious

    • share work

  • Wrote Huron Carol

  • Kidnapped with colleague by Iroquois

    • Tortured

    • Canabilized: ate his heart (respect?)

7

"Tabula Rasa" Evangelism

  • Tabula Rasa is Latin for "blank slate"
  • New Spains strategy for Roman Catholic Missions:
    • Erase local culture

    • Suppress local religion

    • Replace with European version of Christianity

8

"Enculturation" Evangelism

  • Puritan style of converting Indians to Christianity
    • Promoted by missionary John Eliot

    • Created Massachusett Bible“Praying Towns”

    • Effectively ended with King Philip’s War, 1675

9

Puritan

A Protestant Calvinist who believes in:

  • Jesus as Lord, Trinity, etc.
  • Salvation by: grace alone, received through faith alone, from Christ alone, revealed in Scripture alone.

  • Bound in covenanted religious and civil communities

  • Activist who were:

    • Religiously devout and morally strict

    • Introspective and self-critical

10

Pilgrim

A Separatist Puritan who arrived in America during 1620 seeking religios freedom from the Anglican church

11

Separatists

  • A Puritan who travelled to America during 1620 seeking religious freedom from the Anglican church
  • Founded Plymouth Plantation in Plymouth, MA

12

Non-Separatists

  • A Puritans who travelled to America during 1630 seeking religious freedom from the Anglican church
  • Founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony:
    • Salem, MA
    • Boston, MA

13

Calvinist

A Protestant who believes in:

  • God’s omnipotence and providence
  • Human sinfulness
  • Predestination
  • Sanctification
  • Civil society should run according to God’s law.
    • Personal faith should serve the common good

14

Omnipotence of God

the quality of having unlimited or very great power

15

Predestination

the theology that God has already decided who with attain salvation and who will not

16

Sanctification

the theology of peoples' God given holiness

17

Arminian

The Puritan rejected Anglican theology of Jacob Arminius which emphasized:

  • Predestination in which humans made free choices that affected their salvation
    • God knew about these choices in advance

 

18

Congregationalist

the organization of a Christian church in which each congregation leads itself with a lack of centralized power (ie: popes, bishops, etc...)

19

John Winthrop

  • Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Cambridge-educated lawyer
  • Gave the renowned sermon “A Model of Christian Charity”

20

William Bradford

  • Town minister of Plymouth, MA
  • Wrote “Of Plymouth Plantation”

21

Anne Hutchinson

  • 1591–1643
  • Puritan
  • In 1937, convicted of:
    • Antinomianism
    • Enthusiasm (spoke openly and often)
    • teaching men
  • Banished from Massachusetts
    • Moved to RI where her husband died
    • Moved to NY where her and her children were killed by Indians

22

Antinomianism

the theology that Christians are released by grace from the obligation of observing the moral law.

23

Salem Witch Trials

  • 1690-1692
  • 150 women accused of witchcraft
  • Trials based on spectral evidence
    • Denounced by Increase Mathers

24

Spectral Evidence

Evidence that came from specters:

  • ghostly apparitions of accused witches that appeared in dreams of the afflicted

25

Cotton Mather

  • Recognized disturbing belief in magic and witchcraft, labelled it as Satanic
  • Records his defence of the Salem Witch Trials in "Wonders of the Invisible World"

26

John Wesley

  • Leader of the Methodist church in England
  • Strongly opposed American Revolution

27

Methodist

  • Protestant christianity
  • Lead by John and Charles Wesley
  • Opposed American Revolution

28

Evangelicalism

  • —A form of American Protestantism
    • not belonging to a specific denomination
  • Emphasis on salvation by grace, personal conversion, and heart felt religion
  • —Bible-centered

    • Bible as God’s special revelation, inspired, infallible, etc.

  • Christ centered/Cross centered

    • Jesus Christ atones for human sin by his death

  • —Conversion-centered

    • Emotional “born again” experience as initiation for “real Christian”

  • —Activism

    • Sharing good news with others

    • Reforming society

29

Revivalism

  • an intense campaign for religious renewal in the British American Colonies
  • Includes the First and Second Great Awakening

30

First Great Awakening

  • 1740-1770

  • A revivalist movement

  • Mostly Calvinist
  • Lead by:
    • George Whitefield (Anglican)
    • Jonathan Edwards, 1703-1758, (Congregationalist)
    • James Davenport
    • Gilbert Tennant (wrote “The Danger of an Unconverted Minister”

31

Second Great Awakening

  • Revivals
    • Cane Ridge Revival (1801)
  • Revivalists
    • —Francis Asbury, 1745-1816, (Methodist)

    • —Charles Grandison Finney, 1792-1875, (Presbyterian/ Congregationalist)

    • Other "itinerants," (Baptists)

32

Jonathan Edwards

  • 1703-1758
  • Congregationalist
  • Revivalist of the First Great Awakening
  • Most important theologian of the 18th century on either side of the Atlantic
  • Wrote the sermon Sermon “Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God” (1741)
  • Defended emotional preaching

33

George Whitefield

  • 1714-1770

  • Anglican from British

  • Toured colonies 7 times

  • Died in Newburyport, MA

34

—Francis Asbury

  • 1745-1816
  • Leader of early Methodist missions in America
    • Imposed high standards amoung converts
  • Broke away from Wesleyan in support of the American Revolution
  • Revivalist of the Second Great Awakening

35

Charles Grandison Finney

  • 1792-1875
  • Led the Second Great Awakening
  • Presbyterian/Congregationalist

36

Cane Ridge Revival

  • the largest meeting of the Second Great Awakening
  • A week long

37

Enlightenment

  • 1600s-present day

  • —Natural reason as a source of knowledge

  • —Scientific method as the way to truth

  • Moral and intellectual perfectibility of humankind

  • —Intellectual, religious, and political liberty

38

Liberal Religion

  • Deists

  • Freemasons

  • Unitarians

39

Deism

  • A liberal enlightenment religion
  • Led by some of our founding fathers
    • John Adams
    • Thomas Jefferson
    • Thomas Paine

40

Thomas Jefferson

  • Deist
  • Cut and pasted his own version of the New Testament
    • Excluded miracles
    • Retained moral teachings

41

Unitarianism

  • Enlightenment religion founded in New England
  • Creed
    • outsiders quipped
    • affirmed the fatherhood of God
    • the brotherhood of man
  • Believed in God's essential unity
  • Jesus as a moral man, not on the same level as God
  • Humans born without original sin
  • Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson ended up being Unitarian

42

Roger Williams

  • a supporter of the separation of church and state
  • found of Roger Williams University

43

Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom

  • Bill written by Thomas Jefferson for Virginia State
  • Jefferson's exact version was altered befor the bill was passed (1786)
  • Established religious freedom in Virginia

44

First Amendment to the United States

  • "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof..."
    • freedom from religion
    • freedom for religion
  • Only applied federally before 1940

45

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints

  • Mormons
  • Founded by The Prophet, Joseph Smith II
    • First Vision, 1820

    • Second Vision, 1823

      • Moroni informs Joseph of the Golden Plates

    • Retrieving the Plates, 1827

    • Translating the Plates, forming the church, 1830

46

Book of Mormon

  • Community of Israelites, led by prophet Lehi, sail to America in 600 BCE

    • Descendents: Nephites and Lamanites.

  • Resurrected Jesus Christ appears to them in America

47

Joseph Smith II

  • Founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
  • First Vision, 1820

  • Second Vision, 1823

  • Moroni informs Joseph of the Golden Plates

  • Retrieving the Plates, 1827

  • Translating the Plates, forming the church, 1830

48

Brigham Young

  • Second prophet of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
  • Led Saints to Salt Lake City, Utah (1847)

    • "This is the place"

  • In Utah: a well-ordered, prosperous society

49

Shamanism

  • Religious studies term, not Indian
  • Shamans
    • medicine men/women
    • Intermediaries between humans and nature
    • Demonstrated skill through cures that combined physical skill and training
    • Called by dreams and vision

    • Travels to the spirit world

      • Practices ecstatic techniques

50

Tenskwatawa

  • Shawnee prophet
  • Wrote "The Prophet" (1812)
  • Brother of Tecumtha
  • Endorsed the banning of alcohol, witchcraft, abortion, and marriage with whites

51

Ghost Dance

  • Inspired by Nevada Paiute Indian, Wovoka
  • Performed to hasten the day the whites would disappear from America
  • Spread east across the Great Plains
  • Oglala Sioux adopted the dance
    • Combined with the Sun Dance
  • Wearing long white shirts painted with red symbols provided protection against bullets and arrows
  • US military involvement ended the Ghost Dance at Wounded Knee in 1890
    • 200 Sioux dead

52

(Nicholas) Black Elk

  • 1863-1950
  • Converted to the Roman Catholic Church 14 years after fighting the Wounded Knee battle in South Dakota in 1890
  • Served as a teacher and missionary in the Great Plains states through the Catholic Church’s St. Joseph’s Society
  • Published "Black Elk Speaks" (1932)

53

Wovoka

  • 1856-1932
  • Nevada Paiute Indian
  • Inspired by dream, the dance would hasten the day the whites would disappear from America
    • a realm of abundant grasses and game,

    • dead ancestors restored to life,

    • A messiah

54

Wounded Knee

  • 1890
  • US Military involvment, halting the practice of the Ghost Dance
  • 200 Sioux dead

55

"Master's Christianity"

  • —“Servants obey your masters” (Eph. 6:5)

  • Respect the property of your masters

  • Don’t rebel

  • Slaves did not take baptism "out of any design to free yourself from the duty and obedience you owe to your master while you live."

56

"Slaves Christianity"

  • žInvisible institution

  • —Frederick Douglass, "Real preachin’ … the whole gospel” 

57

Invisible Institution

secret meetings in houses, outdoors, brush arbors, “hush harbors”

58

Francis Le Jau

attempted to convert slaves to "Master's Christianity"

59

Frederick Douglass

  • Slave born in Maryland about (ca. 1817)
    • escaped to MA in 1838
  • Expressed the hypocrisy of white Christianity
  • Championed temperance, women's rights, and antislavery
  • Published autobiography "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas" (1845)

60

Spirituals

  • žSongs composed by anonymous slaves

  • Themes include:

    • žRepetition of phrases

    • —žCreation of sacred time

    • žCombination of sacred and secular, spiritual and political

61

Established “African” Churches

  • žMethodist (African Methodist Episcopal Church, Philadelphia, 1816)

  • Baptist (National Baptist Convention, 1895)

  • Pentecostal-Holiness Churches

62

Richard Allen

  • Slave born in Philadelphia in 1760
  • Leader of the Bethel AFrican Methodist Episcopal Church

63

African Methodist Church

  • Formed by Richard Allen in Philadelphia, 1760
  • Broke off from the Methodist church

64

National Baptist Convention

  • African church formed after the civil war in 1895
  • became the largest black denomination in the US

65

Abolitionist Position

  • “Immediatism”
  • Slavery is “always and everywhere” a sin.
  • No remuneration for slaveholders
  • No colonization

66

Proslavery Position

  • •Slavery a “positive good” (not a necessary evil)

  • Civilization requires a “leadership class” and a “labor class”

  • Africans are suited for slavery

  • No African Colonization

67

Emancipationist Position

  • •Majority pre-1830 position

  • “Gradualism”

  • Slavery an “evil” but not a “sin”

  • Voluntary “manumission”

  • Remuneration for slaveholders

  • African Colonization

68

Angelina Grimke

  • Quaker abolitionist
  • Provoked bitter confrontation from antislavery supporters

69

Catherine Beecher

70

George Armstrong

71

Charles Darwin

Wrote the Origin of Species which described evolution. Ruffled the feathers of many religios groups. Sparked religious fundementalism

72

Origin of Species

Scientific text written by Charles Darwin. Spends much time describing differences in barnacles. Promotes Theory of Evolution

73

"Higher" biblical criticism

Sparked by transcendentalism

74

Liberal Protestants

Adapt traditions to new ideas; included people such as:

•Henry Ward Beecher (19th century)

•Harry Emerson Fosdick (20th century)

•Liberal Catholics, Reform Jews

75

Henry Ward Beecher

19th Century; A liberal Protestant; Modernist. Adapted tradition to new ideas

76

Harry Emerson Fosdick

  • 20th Century
  • A liberal Protestant; Modernist.
  • Adapted tradition to new ideas
  • ™Pastor of First Presbyterian (NYC)
  • –Preached “Shall the Fundamentalists Win?” (1922)
  • ™Pastor of Riverside Church (NYC), 1930

77

J. Gresham Machen

  • 20th Century
  • Conservative Protestant theologian; Fundementalist
  •  reject ideas, embrace tradition
  • ™Last of the “old Princeton theologians”

    • Cofounder: Westminster Theological Seminary, Orthodox Presbyterian Church

78

Fundementalists

Believe in the 100% validity of the Bible

79

What was the Scopes Trial based on?

Tennessee prohibits public schools from teaching “the theory that denies the story of the divine creation of man as taught in the Bible and [teaches] instead that man has descended from lower animals"

80

What was involved in the Scopes Trial?

  • ™The law
  • ™The defendant
    • –High school teacher and football coach John T. Scopes
  • ™The attorneys
    • –The defense: Clarence Darrow
  • –The state: William Jennings Bryan

81

William Jennings Bryan

The state in the Scopes Trial

82

Clarence Darrow

The defense in the Scopes Trial

83

Walter Rauschenbusch

  • Early 20th Century
  • Member of The Social Gospel

84

Social Gospel

  • Justice
    • Support labor unions
    • Regulate industry
    • Deal with social/political morality and sin

85

Salvation Army

  • Love

    • Meet immediate needs

    • Deal with individual morality and sin

86

Frances Willard

  • Member of the Womens Temperance Union
  • From moderation to total abstinence

  • Legal prohibition

    • supported by liberal and conservative Protestants

    • 18th Amendment, 1919-1933

87

Women’s Christian Temperance Union

  • From moderation to total abstinence

  • Legal prohibition

    • supported by liberal and conservative Protestants

    • 18th Amendment, 1919-1933

  • Members

    • Frances Willard and Carrie A. Nation

88

Know Nothings

  • Anti-Catholic group

89

Americanist Controversy

  • Late 19th Century

  • Americanists (John Ireland) v. Traditionalists

  • Leo XIII, 1899, sides primarily with traditionalists

90

Dorothy Day

  • 20th Century
  • Roman Catholic convert

91

Vatican II

  • “Build a bridge” to the modern world
  • Reach out to Protestants, Orthodox, and non-Christians
  • Affirm religious freedom
  • Advocate social responsibility and concern for the poor
  • Worship in local language (not Latin)

92

Reform Judaism

  • žEmbrace European enlightenment, American values

  • Adapt ancient practices  to modern circumstances

  • See Religion in American Life, p. 221, for specifics

  • See Pittsburg Platform

  • žMostly early, German immigrants

  • žHebrew Union College, Cincinnati, founded 1875

93

Pittsburgh Platform

ž“We recognize in the Mosaic legislation a system of training the Jewish people for its mission during its national life in Palestine, and today we accept as binding only its moral laws, and maintain only such ceremonies as elevate and sanctify our lives, but reject all such as are not adapted to the views and habits of modern civilization.”

94

Orthodox Judaism

  • žReject European Enlightenment, American culture

  • Uphold ancient practices as alternative to modern world

  • See p. 222-223 for specifics

  • žMostly later, eastern European (Russian, Polish, etc.)

  • žFounded Yeshiva University, NYC, 1927

95

Hebrew Union College

A reform Judaism school founded in Cincinnati, founded 1875

96

Yeshiva University

An Orthodox Jewish school founded in NYC, 1927

97

Conservative Judaism

  • žBroke from Reform movement
  • žConserve the essence of ancient practices for the modern world (p. 223)
  • Doctrine of selectivity
  • žSee Heschel, “God in Search of Man”
  • žJewish Theological Seminary, NYC, founded 1886

98

Jewish Theological Seminary

A conservative jewish seminary founded in NYC, founded 1886

99

Abraham Heschel

  • a Conservative Jew
  • ž“The individual’s insight alone is unable to cope with all the problems of living. It is the guidance of tradition on which we must rely, and whose norms we must learn to interpret and to apply. We must learn not only the ends but also the means by which we realize the ends; not only the general laws but also the particular forms.”

100

Recontructionist Judaism

  • Non-theistic (?) “Judaism as civilization,” (p. 355)

101

Fulton Sheen

Catholic Bishop hosted TV show: Life is Worth Living

102

Norman Vincent Peale

Reverend who hosted The Power of Positive Thinking

103

Billy Graham

  • Evangelical Resurgent
  • b. 1918, North Carolina
  • Attends Wheaton University, Illinois
  • Los Angeles crusade, 1949
  • Old fashioned evangelical conversion,
  • but emphasize love over judgment
  • Flamboyant, theatrical style
  • Anti-communist
  • Randolph Hearst: “Puff Graham”

104

Reinhold Niebuhr

  • Prophettic voice
  • The ironic human situation

  • Every human being is both

    • a creature of dust and

    • created in God’s image.

  • Being a creature of dust means …

    • you are subject to limitations.

  • Being in the image of God means …

    • you are capable of seeing beyond those limitations and shaping your environment.

105

Martin Luther King

  • —Born  Jan. 15, 1929

  • Attended Moorehouse College, Crozer Theological Seminary, Boston University (PhD)

  • —Pastor, Dexter Baptist Church, Montgomery Alabama

    • Later, co-pastor, Ebenezer Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia

106

Montgomery Bus Boycott

  • 1955

107

Birmingham protest

  • 1963
  • —Martin Luther King and the SCLC lead a protest against segregation of public spaces

  • Good Friday, King directly defies a court order

    • “Parading without a permit”

  • —Goes to jail

108

Letter from Birmingham Jail

  • —Context: critical open letter from Birmingham Clergy Association

  • —King and SCLC are described as uninformed “outsiders”

  • —Locals should give new administration a chance to make changes.

  • —Work for change through courts, negotiation, not demonstrations

  • —Obey civil law

109

March on Washington

I have a dream speech

110

Elijah Muhammad

  • Leader of the Nation of Islam

111

Malcolm X

  • Conflicts with NOI

  • 1964, Leaves NOI, visits Mecca

  • Organizes:

  • Muslim Mosque, Inc.

  • Organization for African-American Unity

  • Assassinated, 1965

112

Nation of Islam

  • First Leader Elijah Muhammad
    • Son Imam W. Deen Muhammad
  • Moral Rigor

  • Abstention from intoxicants, pork

  • Wallace Fard is divine incarnation/messiah

  • Elijah Muhammad (20th century)  is a prophet

  • Yacub’s history

  • Black people are essentially good.

  • White people are essentially evil

  • No life after death

113

Traditional Islam

  • Moral Rigor

  • Abstention from intoxicants, pork

  • God, transcendent and  “without partner”

  • Muhammad (7th century) is God’s final prophet

  • Equality of all people under God

  • Final judgment and 

114

Susan Thistlewaite

  • Feminist Theologian
  • reforming Christian feminism

115

Wounded Knee II

  • 1973
  • Native American LIberation Movement

116

Religious Right

  • Opposition to perceived secularism, sexual permissiveness, feminism, legalized abortion of 1970s

    • Debated historical issue: Did Roe v. Wade create the religious right?

  • Conservative morality and free market capitalism

  • Political activism

  • Cooperation with “cobelligerents” (Francis Schaeffer)

    • like minded non-evangelicals: Roman Catholics, Mormons

117

Jerry Falwell

Leader of the Moral Majority, televangelist

118

Pat Robertson

  • Christian Broadcasting Network

  • Presidential Candidate, 1988

119

Tony Campolo

  • Peace and justice evangelical
    • Argue for economic justice, nuclear disarmament, against US military intervention in Central America, etc.

120

Jimmy Carter

  • 1976

  • President Jimmy Carter

    • Southern Baptist

    • Proved an evangelical could become president

121

Ronald Reagan

  • Religious Right helps to elect Ronald Reagan in 1980

122

New Age Movement

  • Syncretistic
  • Earth spiritualities

  • Harmonic Convergence, 1987

123

Immigration reform acts of 1965

  • Protestant, Catholic, Jewish mainstream

  • Secularism

  • Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, etc. as immigrant religions

  • Before 1965:

    • Protestant, Catholic, Jewish mainstream

    • Secularism

    • Islam, Buddhism, neo-Hinduism as alternative religions

124

Tribe of Wannabe

a New Age group of wannabe Native Americans

125

Native American Church

  • –Church state argument, 1990-1997

126

Pluralism

  • includes but is not the same as religious freedom

    • “People have a right to believe whatever they want.”

    • “Whatever people want to believe is right.”

  • includes but is not the same as religious tolerance

127