FINAL REVIEW- Nervous Musculoskelteal, Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in FINAL REVIEW- Nervous Musculoskelteal, Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems Deck (50):
1

Which of the Clostriudium species is not histotoxic?

C. difficle

It causes GI symptoms- OVER USE OF CLINDAMYCIN and LYCOMYCIN in horses

2

Pleocytosis is

increased number of cells in the CSF

inflammtory cells

3

What is the best method of diagnosing infections cause by hisotoxic Clostridia?

Direct Fluorescent antibody staining test (DFA); practical and faster option with muscle

Available for C. chauvoei, C. septicum, C. novyi
Anaerobic culture not very rewarding and time consuming

4

If you suspect a bacterial  infection in the nervous system, how would you confirm it?

CSF fluid

5

In you knowledge which of the following bacteria does not have a predilection for nervous tissue?

A. Cryptococcus neoformans

B. Histophilus somni

C. Listeria monocytogenes

D. Bacillus anthracis

D

cryptocococcus- NS in cats

H. somni- cattle( also causes pneunmonia)

Listeria- ruminants; gets there through trigeminal nerve

6

Bacterial infections of the nervous system manifests as

Can be manifested as meningitis, encephalitis, Encephalomyelitis

7

what is special about the drugs that you choose for nervous system bacterial infections?

• Broad-spectrum antibacterials that can penetrate the blood- brain barrier should be selected in treating infections

• Bactericidal drugs are preferred over bacteriostatic agents.

• Higher than normal dosages needed to maintain adequate concentrations in the CNS.

8

Thromboembolic meningoencephalitis – (TEME)

or Thrombotic meningoencephalitis(TME)

• Histophilus somni
• Occurs 1-2 week after the episode of pneumonia
• Blindness, ataxia, convulsions, depression and coma

• Usually death in 12 hours

9

What is the pathognomic lesion for H. somni?

Pathognomonic lesions of H. somni infection

Multiple reddish necrotic foci, thrombi in blood vessels composed of leukocytes, fibrin, bacteria-

10

What happens physiologically in TGE?

The bacteria adhere to the endothelial cells, causing vasculitis, thrombosis, and infarction and continue replicating in the thrombus, triggering an inflammatory response.

Apoptosis of endothelial cells

Host inflammation due in part to the presence of endotoxin and the activation of the coagulation cascade

• Recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages to sites of infection

11

Listeriosis

Listeria monocytogenes

Common infection in cattle, sheep, and goats

Circling disease

Usually occurs after ingestion of contaminated silage during winter time

Encephalitis: Most common presentation in ruminants (cattle, sheep, goat).

Bacteria invade through oral mucosa travels along trigeminal nerve and have affinity for brain stem

Unilateral signs of trigeminal and facial paralysis

In septicemic listeriosis, in calves that die when <3 wk old, Focal hepatic necrosis, and hemorrhagic gastroenteritis are common- NECROTIZING HEPATITIS

A serious food safety pathogen

12

What is the best tissue to send for culture for Listeria?

BRAIN STEM

13

How do you diagnosis Listeria?

Diagnosis
Listeria enrichment culture or PCR

14

What is the treatment for Listeria?

Treatment:
L monocytogenes is susceptible to penicillin (the drug of choice), ceftiofur, erythromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfonamide.
High doses are required because of the difficulty in achieving minimum bactericidal concentrations in the brain.

15

Chlamydia pecorum

Sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis in Feedlot cattle:

16

Salmonella Dublin

Meningitis in calves as a result of systemic infection by Salmonella Dublin

 

in cattle

17

What is a common infection in cats that causes nervous system lesions?

Cryptococcal infection in cats

18

Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia
Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia in sheep

Symmetrical necrosis and haemorrhage of the white matter

19

Pericarditis/Myocarditis

Clostridium chauvoei (Black leg)

 

20

Tyzzers disease

Myocarditis

in lab animals and horses

 

 

21

Fusobacterium necrophorum

in cattle in the rumen

liver abysess

calf dipetheria

foot rot

22

Trueperella pyognes

abysesses in all of the internal organs

espesically after pneumonia

23

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

causes abysess in the heart, liver, and other

 

24

Histophilus somni

also causes myocarditis

25

Shigatoxigenic E.coli

or VTECH(virotoxin)

Edema disease in Weaned pigs

Edema disease in pigs
is primarily a disease of the vasculature, subcutaneous edema
Edema in the, eyelid, submucosa of the stomach, mesocolon
Stress, change of diet, leads to replication of bacteria, toxin absorption, action on endothelium Inhibit protein synthesis by interacting with 60s ribosomes
Microscopically, a degenerative angiopathy affecting arteries and arterioles and necrosis of the smooth muscle cells in the tunica media are present

26

Traumatic reticulopericarditis(multiple bacteria)

mainly due to trauma

27

These are pathoneumotic signs for...

Shigatoxigenic E. coli

Edema disease in weaned pigs

28

What are two disease that cause lymphadenitis?

Caseous lymphadenits (cornebacterium psuedotuberculosis

Strangles(Strep, equi equi)

29

What are three bacteria that cause Lymphangitis?

-Pigeon fever A different biotype of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

-Sporothrix schenkii-(cats, dogs, and horses- cutaneous lymphgitis)
-Epizootic lymphangitis-  Histoplasma farci

30

Rickettsia;

Colonizes vascular endothelium causing hemorrage throughout the body

Typhus group; R. prowazekii and R. typhi

31

Spotted fever group;

Spotted fever group; R rickettsii- (Dermacenter) Dogs may serve as excellent sentinels of risk

32

R. felis

R. felis is an emerging zoonotic infection

rodent reservoirs (rats, mice) and an endemic cycle between opossums and domestic cats and infected fleas.

 

TRANSMITTED BY FLEAS

33

Rickettsia/ Ehrlichia/Anaplasma/hemotrophic mycoplasma

• Vascular endothelial damage and thrombocytopenia development of petechiae and echymoses.

Necrosis of the extremities (acryl gangrene) or disseminated intravascular coagulation can develop in severely affected dogs.

Require intermediate tick vector for transmission( except R. felis which needs fleas and Coxiella, which can be directly transmitted)

Dogs and other infected animals do not pose a direct transmission risk in normal circumstances.

34

What is one interesting thing about Coxiella?

It is resisitant to pasturization temperature.

35

Rickettsia/ Ehrlichia/Anaplasma/hemotrophic mycoplasma

E.chaffeensis-Human monocytic ehrlichiosis,(Humans Dogs) Amblyoma, Dermacenter

36

E.ewingii-

E.ewingii- Canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis (dogs and humans)

37

E.canis-

E.canis- Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (dogs, humans?)

38

E.ruminantium-

E.ruminantium- endothelium granulocytes (ruminants) heartwater, amblyoma

39

A. phagocytophilium

A. phagocytophilium- horses, ruminants, humans, dogs; granulocytes Ixodes

40

A. marginale, A centrale:

A. marginale, A centrale: erythrocytes in ruminants

41

Anaplasma platys;

Anaplasma platys; Dogs; platelets

42

Neorickettsia helminthoeca

salmon fever

fluke

43

Neorickettsia risticii

potomac horse fever

44

• Anaerobic Gram positive rod

Spastic paralysis

• Terminal endospores

• Widespread in soil and feces

• Grow in contaminated wounds

Produce a potent neurotoxin (tetanospasmin)

• AB toxin with zinc endopeptidase activity

45

Clostridium botulinum

Diverse group of organism (Toxin types A-G)

Botulism- Flacid paralysis
Botulinum neurotoxin
Food intoxication (food poisoning)

Toxin absorbed and distributed in bloodstream

Occasional toxico-infectious forms – wounds, intestinal (infant botulism/shaker foal- in unpasterized honey)
Inhibits neurotransmitter release (acetylcholine)

 

46

Aquatic life cycle of C. botulinium

47

C. septicum

Malignant edema(through wounds), Braxy(abomasitis),
Necrotic dermatitis (chicken)

48

Clostridium species frequently associated with necrotic myositis (Histotoxic Clostridia)

C. chauvoei

C. septicum

C. novyi
C. perfringens

 

Endospores (widely distributed in soil/GI tract)

Rapid growth in anaerobic conditions fermentative/proteolytic activities

Exotoxins/extracellular enzymes

Invasive infections Myositis

49

Histoxic Clostridia

Cellulitis, necrotic myositis

Often moves along fascial planes

Lesions appear hemorrhagic (edematous or dry)

May detect gas and crepitus

Sudden death common

Clinical signs may include: fever, anorexia, depression, lameness

50

Histotoxic Clostrium