Final sweep 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final sweep 2 Deck (65):
1

Types of pins

cemented, friction locked, threaded

2

Adhere directly to tooth

RMGI

3

Require adhesives

composites

4

Ionomers need a clean intact ---------• Ionomers attach by chelating with ------ (metal ions)

dentine surface with exposed mineral

HA surfaces

5

Adhesives need a --------• Hybrid layer

demineralized dentin surface with exposed collagen

6

Conditioners

(used with Glass ionomers)
Mild organic acids
• Solublizes smear layer
• Remove smear layer
• Leave smear plugs intact
• Does not demineralize dentin or enamel
• Cleans surface

7

with RMGI - Polymerization
shrinkage
• swelling from water sorption –

zero net dimensional change

8

• RMGIs have improved strength but less ---- (vs GI)

stiffness

9

pulp pain is usually

sharp

10

• IfRDTis>2.0mm use a

liner

11

Copal varnish
• 2 layers

85% sealed

12

Copal varnish for

amalgam only

13

----- are the most commonly used bases now.

GI and RMGI

14

• If RDT is 0.5-2.0 mm

• Base(replacesmissing Dentin)

Then go with liner overtop

15

Apply Calcium Hydroxide (CaOH2) liner for

near pulp/pulp cap

16

 Coherent beams of light –

All the photons that make up laser light are said to be ‘in phase’ because the photons are all generated by the same material and therefore, are synchronized in motion.

17

 Monochromatic –

Laser energy is composed of a single wavelength, creating a single color beam.

18

 Collimated –

Laser energy travels in a straight line because all the photons are moving in the same direction.

19

Active medium confers the

name and wavelength

20

As laser energy exits a fiber or waveguide it is no longer ---------

collimated.

21

• ----- is that property where the beam diameter of the laser light increases with the distance from the laser.

Divergence

22

Power density

watts/cm2

23

Often, --------- lasers use a mixture of air and water to assist in cooling of tissues.

Free-Running Pulsed

24

Transmission

light transmitted through the tissue unchanged

25

Class I lasers

disc laser - safe for use

26

Class II lasers

laser pointers - safe briefly, don't stare into it for long.

27

Class IIIa lasers

intermediate, continuous lasers - stronger pointers, damage can occur.

28

Class IIIb lasers

laser light shows - can cause some serious damage

29

Class IV lasers

surgery

30

Diode Lasers

• SemiconductorLaser

31

Nd:YAG Lasers

• Solid State Laser – Crystal

32

Erbium Lasers

• Solid State Laser – Crystal

33

Erbium Lasers
• Absorbed by

Water and Hydroxyapatite

34

CO2 Lasers

Gas Laser – CO2 Gas

35

CO2 lasers - Absorbed by

Pigment, Water and Hydroxyapatite

36

The Er,Cr:YSGG laser has a good cutting effect on

root surface and causes no burning or melting after laser irradiation

37

Gutta percha used to

trace tract - find source of abscess w/radiograph

38

Epithelium and pigmentation removed using an

erbium laser and topical anesthetic

39

Lanap protocol

First pass in perio pockets (remove bacteria, infection, inflammation)

Ultrasonic cleaning

Second pass laser - hemostasis and coagulation

Occlusal adjustment/splinting

Postop healing and maintenance

40

Nd:YAG Laser

1064 nm

41

Nd:YAG Laser is a

soft tissue only laser

42

Lanap contraindications

root fracture suspected, endo-perio lesion, class III furcation, thick hyperplastic tissue, concavity or grooves in root (mesial of upper bicuspids), crown lengthening

43

Laser frenectomy with

erbium laser

44

2780 nm –

Er,Cr:YSGG

45

 2940 nm –

Er:YAG

46

Erbium lasers  Absorbed by

Water and Hydroxyapatite

47

Erbium laser pulse

 Extremely short pulse (millionths of a second!)

48

Gas Laser – CO2 Gas

 10,600 nm (10.6 μm)

49

CO2 lasers - a Absorbed by

Pigment, Water and Hydroxyapatit

50

CO2 lasers - Extremely

short pulse

51

• Pedo patients tend to experience less sensitivity because

deciduous teeth require less power to cut

52

Junction of Ionizing and Non-Ionizing is

Ultraviolet and Visible Violet

53

Ionizing radiation

• short wavelength, very high energy
• absorption can cause damage to cells and side effects such as radiation burns, cataracts and cancer
• UV light, X Rays and Gamma Rays
• Ionizing radiation is used to heal with X-rays, CT scans and Nuclear Medicine

54

Non- ionizing radiation

• longer wavelength, lower energy
• MRI uses radio waves
• Safe for living tissue
• No side effects

55

Peak Power –

Gated and Free running pulsed modes This is a very important concept:
• Each pulse has a set amount of energy
• As shorter pulses are used, this same energy is squeezed into a smaller space, which increases the Peak Power in each pulse

56

Peak Power is important because of the
concept of

Thermal Relaxation:
• Allows the tissue to dissipate heat and absorb energy
• Minimize tissue damage
• Less post-op discomfort, more predicable healing
• Thermal relaxation may allow procedures without anesthesia

57

----- is the desired effect

Absorption

58

Absorption –

varies with the type of tissue and wavelength

59

• Chromophore –

a molecule that absorbs light energy at a specific wavelength

60

• Diode and Nd:YAG (808nm-1064nm)

absorbed by hemoglobin and pigmented tissue

61

Absorption - Photothermal – Heat!
The principle laser:tissue interaction
Thermal effect is primarily the

water content and the temperature rise of the tissue. Ablation

62

Stressed or ischemic cells: (disease, injury, aging)
• Mitochondria synthesize nitric oxide (NO)
• NO binds to cytochrome c oxidase and displaces oxygen
• Reduced ATP production
• Increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS)
• Increased oxidative stress and increased inflammation 69

Mechanism of action – after LLLT
• Light absorption within the mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase)
• NO is released, Oxygen is reabsorbed
• Increase in ATP production
• Reduction in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
• Reduction of inflammation
• Vasodilation, angiogenesis
• Biostimulation

63

Factors affecting absorption

• Tissue type: swollen, bruised, dark skin, tattoos - red light very affected, IR far less affected
• Energy density = Joules/cm2
- equals power x time / area
• Continuous or pulsed • Wavelength

64

For LLLT to be effective, irradiation parameters need to be

within certain ranges.
• No significant effect if power density is too low, or the time is too short.

65

• LLLT healing benefits are lost if

power density is too high or time is too long.