Final Test (Lab #5-10) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Test (Lab #5-10) Deck (157):
1

a lavender top tube is for what

plasma

2

what does the lavender top tube have in it

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)

3

how do purple top tubes prevent clotting

Binds calcium to prevent clotting

4

how son should you make blood smears and with what

from fresh blood within 15 minutes

5

purple top tubes do what

Preserves cellular morphology

6

what should you do when you take blood

Refrigerate it

7

what is the serum

Fluid portion of blood from untreated collection tube (red or yellow top)

8

yellow top tubes have what in them

a serum separator gel

9

what do you need to do with blood when they are in tubes with anticoagulant

let clot for 20 min

10

3 reasons to make blood smears

- Determine percentage of different WBCs
- Report the RBC and WBC morphology
- Platelet estimate

11

normal spreader slide angle

30-45 degrees

12

when should you use the splat technique

for fragile or again blood to produce a thin layer

13

anemic blood spreader angle

more than 45 degrees

14

concentrated blood angle

less than 20 degrees

15

a good film has 5 things

- 2/3 to 3/4 length of slide
- finger shaped, rounded feathered edge
- no streaks or holes
- whole drop of blood is used
- lateral edges of the film are visible

16

4 reasons for weird slides

- too small of a drop of blood
- spreader slide pushed too quickly
- uneven pressure on the spreader slide
- chipped or rough edge on spreader slide

17

what is the purpose of staining (2)

- Individual cell identification
- Abnormal cellular characteristics

18

the fixative solution is what colour

light blue

19

what is the fixative solution made up of

95% methanol

20

when should the fixative solution be used

first

21

types of stains ($)

- Romanowsky stains
- Wright’s Stain
- Wright-Giemsa Stain
- Diff-Quik

22

what is the red solution called

Eosin solution

23

eosin has what kind of pH

Acidic

24

what does Eosin stain

Stains basic components of cell

25

eosin binds to what

anything basic in the blood

26

examples of basic cell components

- Hemoglobin
- esosinophilic granules

27

what is the dark blue/purple solution called

Methylene Blue

28

Methylene Blue has what kind of pH

Alkaline pH

29

what does Methylene Blue stain

Stains acidic components of cells

30

what are examples of acidic components of cells

Nuclei of leukocytes

31

what should you do after staining before you look at smear
under the microscope

Leave to air dry after rinsing with distilled water

32

how to maintain the stains

- Do not drop water into stain in between steps
- Change stains weekly
- Keep lids of stains closed when not in use

33

what to do if there is too much blue

~ Stain in solution too long - decrease staining time
~ Inadequate wash - rinse longer with distilled water

34

what to do if there is too much pink

~ Stain in solution too long - decrease staining time
~ Inadequate time in blue solution - increase staining time in blue

35

what to do if the stain is weak or light

~ In stains for too short of time - increase staining time
~ Old stains -change solutions

36

what to do if the stain is uneven

~ Water allowed to dry on slide -vertically tilt slide while drying

37

what to do if there is precipitate on smear

~ Precipitate in stain, old stain - change solutions

38

PPE for staining

- Lab coat
- Hair tied back
- Gloves
- Forceps for dipping
- Eye protection when changing stains or refilling containers

39

how to dispose stains

- Take to dispensary and dispose into expired solutions bin/containers
- Rinse containers
- Let air dry
- Refill with new solution

40

5 types of WBC

Neutrophils
Basophils
Eosinophils
Monocytes
Lymphocytes

41

another 2 names for Packed Cell Volume

PCV or Microhematocrit

42

what does the PCV show

Allows you to know how much of the whole blood is composed of RBCs

43

how can the PCV be written (2)

% of L/L

44

how much error is there in PCV

1-2%

45

top to bottom blood PCV order

- plasma
- Buffy layer (WBC and platelets)
- red blood cells
- clay plug

46

normal canine PCV value

- 37 - 55%
- 0.37 - 0.55 L/L

47

normal feline PCV value

- 27 - 45%
- 0.27 - 0.45 L/L

48

normal plasma colour

Straw or Clear

49

icteric plasma looks like what

Yellow

50

what does yellow plasma indicate

Dehydration, liver disease

51

Hemolysis plasma looks like what

Pink or Red

52

what does Pink or Red plasma indicate

Technical error during blood collection or disease

53

lipemic plasma looks like what

White or Pink
and Cloudy or “milky”

54

what does White or Pink
and Cloudy or “milky” plasma indicate

Increased cholesterol or fats

55

what is the white Buffy coat

layer between the RBCs and the Plasma

56

what are measuring on the refractometer in regards to PCV

g/dL or g/L

57

how to convert g/dL to g/L

multiply by 0.10

58

TP Increase causes (3)

- Antibody production (globulins)
- Dehydration
- Inflammation

59

TP decrease causes

- Usually due to low albumin
- Carries hormones and nutrients
- Inadequate production (liver disease)
- Young animals
- Malnutrition
- Loss in urine, stool, lactation, pregnancy

60

PPE for PCV

gloves, lab coat

61

how to dispose of PCV tubes

Sharps Biohazard bin, wipes into Biological waste bin

62

fecal examines should be done on what kind fecal samples

- on a fresh sample

63

if you can't do an immediate fecal sample what can you do

- refrigerate
- put in formalin

64

what can happen in old samples

Eggs, oocysts, and other life cycle stages may be altered

65

how much faces do you need

- 2-5 g
- Top half of thumb

66

Gross exam consists of what

- consistency
- colour
- check for blood and mucous

67

how do you judge consistency

fecal scoring chart (1 - hard and 10 - liquid)

68

what is colour determined by

- food
- malabsorption
- parasites

69

blood types found in the stool

- Dark reddish-brown
- Bright red streaks
- Dark tarry

70

what could mucous indicate

Digestive disorders or parasites

71

tapeworms look like

rice

72

round worms look like

Spaghetti

73

what do you use a direct smear for

For motile parasites, not eggs

74

a direct smear is ______

fast

75

2 types of solutions used in a fecal float

sugar or salt solution

76

2 types of floatations

- Fixed or swing head centrifuge
- Passive fecal floats

77

what is Antigen Testing

testing the sample for Antigens which are secreted by the worm (not present in the eggs)

78

why do fecal floats not always work

Worm may intermittently lay eggs therefore you may not catch eggs in the fecal float even with adults present

79

2 examples of a salt solution

- Zinc Sulfate
- Sodium Nitrate (Fecasol)

80

what is the specific gravity of a salt solution

1.18-1.2 specific gravity

81

Advantages of a salt solution (1)

comes ready to use

82

disadvantages of salt solution (3)

- Expensive
- forms crystals
- can distort eggs if left to sit for longer than 20 mins

83

specific gravity of a sugar solution

1.2 +

84

3 advantages of sugar solutions

- Easy to make
- Long shelf life
- Does not distort eggs or crystallize

85

3 disadvantages of sugar solutions (2)

- Sticky to work with
- Must make the solution

86

what is the minimum specific gravity to be used in a floatation solution

1.24

87

what is the specific gravity of most parasite eggs

1.05 to 1.23

88

how does the fecal flotation work

must have a specific gravity higher than that of the parasite diagnostic stage you are trying to recover in order for the eggs

89

how long do you wait for the cover slip to catch the eggs

10 mins

90

PPE for a fecal float

- lab coat
- gloves

91

what should you write down if you find no parasites

DO NOT WRITE NEGATIVE write NPS (no parasites seen)

92

4 common intestinal parasites

Roundworms
Hookworms
Whipworms
Tapeworms
Coccidia
Giardia

93

what classifies a Arachnid

- segmented body divided into two regions
- anterior bears four pairs of legs
- no antennae

94

5 tick anatomy labelling

DO IT

95

hard ticks:
family

Ixodidae

96

hard ticks:
females vs males

Females are larger than males

97

hard ticks:
scutum

Have scutum (plate) on back

98

hard ticks:
mouth piece

Visible mouth pieces when observing from above

99

hard ticks:
habitat

forests, woody areas, weeds, tall grass

100

hard ticks:
disease

Can transmit many diseases

101

soft ticks:
disease

Only transmits one disease

102

soft ticks:
habitat

cabins, sheds, animal dens/burrows

103

soft ticks:
mouth piece

Mouth pieces hidden underneath / tucked under body

104

soft ticks:
scutum

No scutum

105

soft ticks:
females vs males

Females and males are similar size

106

soft ticks:
family

Argasidae

107

why does the female’s scutum only covers half of her back

Because when she feeds her body will become engorged & expands

108

what is a backlogged or deer tick called

Ixodes scapularis

109

defining features of the deer tick

- Long palps
- dark brown scutum
- female has red
- not a wine glass looking anus

110

what is a American Dog tick called

Dermacentor variabilis

111

defining features of the American dog tick

- Short broad palps
- white speckled scutum
- 11 festoons

112

what is a Lone Star tick called

Amblyomma americanum

113

defining features of the lone star tick

- Long thin palps
- female has white/yellow “star” on scutum
- male has some white/yellow colour near festoons

114

what is a brown dog tick called

Rhipicephalus sanguineus

115

defining features of the brown dog tick

- Brown/Black scutum
- short palps
- basis capituli is hexagonal in shape

116

which tick likes to live in your home

brown dog tick

117

how long can a tick live for

up to 3 years

118

tick life cycle (7)

- male and female mate on a host
- females engorges on host
- female jumps off and lays thousands of eggs
- eggs hatch into larvae and use vegetation to find a mammal host
- feed on host. jump off and change into nymph
- nymph looks for a new host
- nymph eats again and then drops off to become adult

119

seasons ticks are seen

spring and fall

120

3 things ticks look for

- Warm temperatures
- humidity
- blood meal of host

121

when do ticks come out (temp)

4 degrees

122

example of a topical tick preventative

Bravecto
Revolution

123

example of a oral tick preventative

Nexgard

124

3 places ticks like to hide

- between the toes
- under the tail
- under the collar

125

ticks are drawn to what areas of the body

dark moist areas

126

2 ways to test for tick borne diseases

- Antech Diagnostics: Accuplex
- Idexx Diagnostics: 4Dx snap test

127

3 tick borne diseases

- Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
- Tick paralysis
- Borrelia burgdorfer (lyme)

128

3 symptoms of Lyme disease in dogs

- Fever
- Loss of appetite
- Reduced energy
- Lameness
- Generalized stiffness, discomfort, or pain
- Swelling of joints

129

what do flea eggs look like

look like tiny smooth pearls

130

what does flea larvae look like

look like tiny fly maggots

131

which type of flea infects cats and dogs

Ctenocephalides felis

132

3 describing features of fleas

4-5mm in length
No wings
Powerful hind legs for jumping

133

which flea is the intermiedate host for tapeworm

Dipylidium caninum

134

how long can a flea live for

200 days

135

how long does it take for a flea to turn into an adult

14-42 days

136

flea life cycle (8)

- adults feed on host
- females lay eggs
- eggs drop off host
- eggs hatch into larvae in environment
- larvae feed on organic debris
- larvae spin cocoons
- larvae change into pupae in cocoons
- start again

137

clinical symptoms of fleas

- Flea Allergy dermatitis
- Adult fleas,
larvae, eggs
- Flea dirt

138

how can you treat the environment for fleas

- vacuum
- flea sprays (make sure safe for pets in household)
- pest control service
- washing bedding

139

what kind of flea treatments and prevention are there

- flea comb
- capstar
- nexgard
- bravecto

140

what is the purpose of the Vet Lab station

- Inputting Patient info
- Can connect to your other Idexx lab analyzers

141

what are the names of 3 tests a Catalyst Dx can perform

- TP
- GLOB
- GGT

142

does the Catalyst Dx connect to the vet lab station

yes

143

how to use the Catalyst Dx

- Collect the sample
- Dispense the sample into a whole blood separator and swirl
- Load the sample and CLIP into the analyser

144

what is the DX tool that the analyzer uses

Preloaded CLIPs or individual tests

145

what is the primary purpose of the Catalyst Dx

Chemistry Analyzer

146

what does the Heska DriChem 4000 do

Chemistry Analyzer

147

what does the vet scan do

Chemistry Analyzer

148

what does the lasercyte do

-CBC: RBCs, WBCs, Platelets, PCV

149

how to use the lasercyte

- Identify the patient to initiate the sample run on the IDEXX VetLab Station
- Place the sample and CBC5R tubes in analyzer
- Press the Run button

150

what kind of analyzer is the lasercyte

Hematology Analyzer

151

what sample does the QBC require

Requires sample from a Purple top blood collection tube

152

what does the QBC run

CBC

153

what does the Scil Vet ABC Plus do

CBC

154

what sample is required for the Scil Vet ABC Plus

Requires 10µL of EDTA blood (purple top)

155

IDEXX snap test can do test for what in canines (3)

- 4Dx plus
- Heartworm
- cPL
- Giardia
- Parvovirus
- Leptospirosis

156

IDEXX snap test can do test for what in felines (3)

- FIV/FeLV
- fPL
- Heartworm
- Giardia

157

what are blood glucose monitors for

- Used to test a patient`s blood glucose level
- Can be used in the clinic or client can purchase to use at home