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Flashcards in final2 Deck (42):
1

Fox01

suppress protein degradation

2

AS160

GLUT4 transprt

3

three highest prevalence by province

NL, NS, ON

4

three lowest prevalence by province

NU, AB, QC

5

metabolic staging of T2DM

insulin resistance --> impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose --> early diabetes --> late diabetes

6

nephropathy

20-40% of person with DM
chronic kidney disease/ failure --> dialysis, transplantation

7

neuropathy

~50% of people
impaired sensation or pain in extremities --> amputation
gastroparesis: reduced peristaltis

8

explain the impaired sensation

more small capillaries are blocked, influence the blood supply to nerve cells. fingers and toes are less sensitive. more infection in food that some people do not care so often

9

pathophysiology of DM complication

glucotoxicity + lipotoxicity + glycated protein (caused by glucotoxicity) --> endothelial damage (oxidative and stiffening) --> acceleration of formation of plaque + atherosclerosis --> ischemic end organ damage, HTN, thrombosis

10

what does A1C indicate

long term glycemic control

11

what is A1C

measured as a percentage of Hb

12

OGTT blood glucose response of IGF

have a higher response of glucose ingestion.
there are some delays to come back to the starting point

13

ABCDES for all patients with diabetes

A1C- optimal glycemic control (<7%)
Blood pressure- optimal blood pressure control (<130/80mmHg)
Cholesterol (LDL-C <2.0 mmol/L )
Drug- to protect heart (ACEi, statin, ASA)
Exercise/ Eating- regular physical activity, healthy diet, achievement and maintenance of healthy body weight
Smoking- cessation

14

SMBG is important for what kind of people

1. people on antihyperglycemic agents
2. people on insulin to prevent hypoglycemia

15

low glycemic index (number)

<55

16

high glycemic index (number)

>70

17

low glycemic load (number)

<10

18

high glycemic load (number)

>20

19

replacing high GI food with low GI food has been proved five improvements

1. glycemic control in T1DM and T2DM
2. increase HDL-C
3. hypoglycemia in T1DM
4. decreased CRP
5. reduced the medication dosage

20

can diabetic patient take fruits

yes
in terms of elevating TG and BG, do not restrict fruits
take moderate amount of tropic fruit

21

whats the benefits of replacing plant protein with animal protein (4)

1. decreased albuminuria
2. decreased CRP
3. decreased LDL-C
4. decreased TG

22

how does non- nutritive sweeteners show the impact on glucose tolerance?

alteration of gut microbiome

23

interventional tx of diabetes is better than conventional at which aspects (2)

1. lower A1C within 10 years
2. decreased risk of non fatal MI, stroke, and CV death

24

low MAMA

<15th percentile for age and gender

25

urinary creatinine is the index of what?

muscle mass

26

urinary creatinine is the metabolite of what?

creatine phosphate, mainly found in skeletal muscle

27

3- methylhistidine is released from whose degradation

actin and myosin degradation, structural and smooth muscle protein

28

gait- speed

1. functional test
2. walk in <0.8m/s in the 4-m walking test
3. the best predictive marker for morbidity and mortality

29

chair rise

1. functional test
2. rise from a chair for 5 times
3. measure leg strength and power

30

6- min walking test

1. functional test
2. distance walked during 6 min
3. endurance test

31

balance test

1. functional test
2. time standing on one foot or one in front of the other
3. measure muscle mass, coordination and neuromuscular function

32

what does high vitamin B12 indicate in cancer

liver mets, leukemia

33

what does high Ca indicate in cancer

mets, lymphomas, parathyroid tumor

34

what does high glucose indicate in cancer

corticosteroid, pancreatic cancer

35

what does low hemoglobin indicate in cancer

1. leukemia
2. lymphoma
3. blood losses
4. radio and chemo Tx

36

what does low potassium indicate in cancer

tx with cisplatin

37

what does low lymphocyte count indicate in cancer

1. leukemia
2. corticosteroids
3. radio and chemo tx

38

what does high blood urea nitrogen in blood stand for

dehydration

39

three purposes of nutritional intervention

1. preventive
2. palliative
3. adjuvant

40

leucine (2)

1. stimulate protein synthesis
2. stimulate insulin secretion

41

glutamine and arginine (2)

1. improve wound healing
2. improve immune competence
3. could be beneficial in pre or post operatively

42

multimodel intervention should combine which three approaches

1. pharmacological
2. physical exercise
3. dietary