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What is aesthetics? Who invented the study of aesthetics? What were the questions and concerns involved in the study of aesthetics?

Aesthetics- the study of the nature of beautify, especially in art.

5 fields of of inquiry- Epistemology(human knowledge), Ethics(values of human conduct), Logic(reason), Metaphysics (first principles, like ontology and cosmotology)

Immanuel Kant


What are the differences between fine arts and applied arts? What specifically makes something an applied art?

Fine art- exists for expression.

Applied art- decorative arts, can include crafts, ornaments, interior design, personal objects, weaponry, ect


What are the functions of art?


.Artifact- representation of a culture or time period

Political and/ or social commentary

Didactic- teaches you something

Art for art's sake: exist just to exist


What is the difference between formal and contextual criticism?

Formal Criticism- approach the work as a self contained piece.(ignore possible outside influences on the work or the artist who created it.

Also address the basic elements that define or qualify a work. (Who makes it what it is?)

Contextual Criticism- external influences, what time period? What was happening in society at the time? Who created it and why? What happened to the artist to make them create the work? Ect


What is style?

The manner in which the artist expression him or herself through medium.

Style is the body of characteristics that identifies an artwork with an individual, historical period, a "school" of artists, or a nation


What is the difference between the sciences and the arts? What is objective? Which is subjective?

Science is objective

Art is the subjective side of reality


What is medium in art?

Medium is the material used to create a work of art, usually defining the type of art created.


What is a binder in art?

Binder holds the pigment together and to the surface of the work.


Difference between dry and wet media?

Dry media- chalk, crayon, charcoal

Wet media- pen and ink, wash and brush


What is mixed-media?

Employs more than one medium in a single work of art


What is the foundation of two-dimensional art?

Drawing is considered the foundation of 2D art


What material is said to have "tooth" and what is its function?

Chalk, soft medium originally used in its natural state, can be used in its natural state.


What effect is achieved by harder charcoal? What effect is achieved by softer charcoal?

Charcoal- burned wood, varies in degree of hardness, easy blended, hard to erase

Harder charcoal, lighter lines produced.

Lighter charcoal- thicker the lines produced


Crayon pigment is held where?

In wax


What other medium is ink and wash similar to?



What are the five types of paint?

Paint- pigment is suspended on a binder applies to a support.

5 Types- oil, watercolor, acrylic, tempra, fresco


What is Impasto technique and why is it used?

Impasto- paint applied very thick


Understand the different binders for each type of paint.

Oil-(pigment in oil, like Linseed oil)

Watercolor- (watercolor on paper)

Acrylics-(pigment suspended in synthetic material, quick to dry, flexible)

Tempra- (pigment suspended in glue or gum, know for eggs)

Fresco- (watercolor applied to wet plaster on a wall, carefully planned)


Understand the different types of printmaking.

3 types: Relief, Itaglio Printmaking, Planographic(lithography)
-image reversal,


Relief Printmaking:

The artist carves away non-image areas and inks the remaining raised surface.

The image protrudes from wood block or plate


Intaglio Printmaking:

Opposite of relief.

Image is carved or scratched into the plate

Ink rests in the grooves or burrs created then transferred to paper


Lithography Printmaking:

Based on principle that water and grease don't mix. (Limestone)


Which artist was famous for using screen-printing to create pop art pieces?

Andy Warhol.

Screenprinting- stencil placed within a mesh screen, non-image areas blocked, squeege used to force ink through screen.


What is the difference between art photography and documentary photography?

Art photography: exists for expression

Documentary: exists to showcase something


Which photographer famously documented the depression and the dust bowl for the United States government?

Dorothea Lange


What is the basic building block of visual design?

A Line


What are the three characteristics of line? How is each used?

1. Linear form- length dominates over width.

2. Line as edge- the place where one object or plane stops and another begins.

3. Implied lines- implication of continued direction


What is "Form" in two-dimensional art?

The shape of an object in a work, defined by line.

Form and shape are interchangeable


What is hue?

A measurable wavelength of a color.


What are the three levels of colors in the twelve-hue color wheel? Which colors fall within each level?

12 basic hues, 3 primary, 3 secondary, 6 tertiary

Primary- yellow red blue

Secondary- purple orange green


Define value: relationship of black to white.

High-value: lighter color

Low-value: darker color


What is the saturation or intensity of a hue?

Degree of purity of a hue.


What is mass in two-dimensional art? Is it implied or literal? How is mass achieved in two-dimensional art?

Implied density of an object in a work of art.
2-D art, mass is implied.

Light, shade, texture and perspective


What is texture in two-dimensional art?

Roughness or smoothness of a work.
Can be literal or illusionary texture.


What is open composition? What is closed composition? What are the differences?

Closed composition: directs the eye internally

Open composition: allows the eye to travel outside of work


What constitutes a regular pattern in two-dimensional art? What constitutes irregular pattern?

Regular: elements repeated in similar size and shape

Irregular: elements repeated in varying size and shape


What is balance in art? What are the 3 categories we studied?

Balance: the feeling of equilibrium in a work of art.

Symmetry- balancing like forms, mass and color, on opposite sides of the vertical axis.

Asymmetry- both sides of center are not the same, but the feeling of equality is still present.

Radial symmetry: parts of an object or picture radiate from central point


What is dominance/focal area in art and how is it achieved?

Emphasizing a subject to show importance.

Confluence of line
Focus by color


What is "Tromp L'oeil?"

"Trick the eye" a visual illusion.


What is "juxtaposition?"

Putting things side by side, especially if they are normally unrelated.


What is the difference between full round sculpture and relief sculpture?

Full round: has full three dimensionality and is meant to be viewed from any angel.
-limited to subject matter

Relief: sculpture attached to/protrudes from a background


What constitutes low relief and what constitutes high relief?

Low relief- project protrudes less than 1/2 of depth of work from background.

High relief- project protrudes by at least 1/2 of depth from background


What are the three types of execution we studied? What are the main ideas of each?

Subtraction- artist starts with large piece of material and cuts/carves away unwanted material

Construction- artist starts with small amount of material and adds to it, "built" sculpture

Substitution- "casting" or "replacement" changes liquid/molten material into solid form using molds.


What is negative space? Is it important or unimportant?

Holes in sculpture.

Sometimes important, sometimes not.

Use personal analysis.


What are some considerations an artist makes in regards to color in three-dimensional art?

Material can be painted or selected for its natural coloring.

Materials chosen for how they will age/weather


What is ephemeral art? What is environmental art?

Ephemeral- designed to be transitory

Environmental- work is part of the environment it exists in.