First Aid 2014 Rapid Reviw Key Associations Flashcards Preview

Pathology > First Aid 2014 Rapid Reviw Key Associations > Flashcards

Flashcards in First Aid 2014 Rapid Reviw Key Associations Deck (134):
1

Actinic (solar) keratosis

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

2

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

Cushing ulcer (↑ intracranial pressure stimulates vagal gastric secretion)

3

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

Curling ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)

4

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon

Skip lesions (Crohn disease)

5

Aneurysm, dissecting

Hypertension

6

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta

Atherosclerosis

7

Aortic aneurysm, arch

Tertiary syphilis (syphilitic aortitis), vasa vasorum destruction

8

Aortic aneurysm, ascending

Marfan's syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

9

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)

10

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)

Sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin S)

11

Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer

H. pylori

12

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)

Streptococcus pneumonias

13

Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)

Group B streptococcus/E.Coli (newborns), S. pneumoniae/Neisseria meningitidis (kids)

14

Benign melanocytic nevus

Spitz nevus (most common in first two decades)

15

Bleeding disorder with Gplb deficiency

Bernard-Soulier syndrome (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand's factor)

16

Brain tumor (adults)

Supratentorial: metastasis > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma

17

Brain tumor (kids)

Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)

18

Breast cancer

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the U.S., 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer)

19

Breast mass

Fibrocystic change, carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)

20

Breast tumor (benign)

Fibroadenoma

21

Cardiac 1° tumor (kids)

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

22

Cardiac manifestation of lupus

Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)

23

Cardiac tumor (adults)

Metastasis, 1° myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and valve")

24

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

Chiari malformation (often presents with progressive hydrocephalus or syringomyelia)

25

Chronic arrhythmia

Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)

26

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

27

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

DES exposure in utero

28

Compression fracture

Osteoporosis (type I: postmenopausal woman; type II: elderly man or woman)

29

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension

21-hydroxylase deficiency

30

Congenital cardiac anomaly

VSD

31

Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

32

Constrictive pericarditis

Tuberculosis (developing world); systemic lupus erythematosus (developed world)

33

Coronary artery involved in thrombosis

LAD>RCA>LCA

34

Cretinism

Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism

35

Cushing's syndrome

• latrogenic Cushing's (from corticosteroid therapy)

36

Cyanosis (early; less common)

Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus

37

Cyanosis (late; more common)

VSD, ASD, PDA

38

Death in CML

Blast crisis

39

Death in SLE

Lupus nephropathy

40

Dementia

Alzheimer's disease, multiple infarcts

41

Demyelinating disease in young women

Multiple sclerosis

42

DIC

Severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma, major surgery

43

Dietary deficit

Iron

44

Diverticulum in pharynx

Zenker's diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

45

Ejection click

Aortic/pulmonic stenosis

46

Esophageal cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (US)

47

Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)

S. aureus, B. cereus

48

Glomerulonephritis (adults)

Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)

49

Gynecologic malignancy

Endometrial carcinoma (most common in U.S.); cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)

50

Heart murmur, congenital

Mitral valve prolapse

51

Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis

Mitral > aortic (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse)

52

Helminth infection (U.S.)

Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides

53

Hematoma—epidural

Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma, lentiform shaped)

54

Hematoma—subdural

Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)

55

Hemochrornatosis

Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes," and Inc risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)

56

Hepatocellnlar carcinoma

Cirrhotic liver (associated with hepatitis B and C and with alcoholism)

57

Hereditary bleeding disorder

von Willebrand's disease

58

Hereditary harmless jaundice

Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

59

HLA-B27

Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's arthritis, ulcerative colitis, psoriatic arthritis

60

HLA-DR3 or -DR4

Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE

61

Holosystolic murmur

VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation

62

Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis

Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)

63

Hypertension, 2°

Renal disease

64

Hypoparathyroidism

Accidental excision during thyroidectomy

65

Hypopituitarism

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

66

Infection 2° to blood transfusion

Hepatitis C

67

Infections in chronic granulomatous disease

Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase positive)

68

Kidney stones

• Calcium = radiopaque

69

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected left to right becomes right to left)

Eisenmenger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)

70

Liver disease

Alcoholic cirrhosis

71

Lysosomal storage disease

Gaucher's disease

72

Male cancer

Prostatic carcinoma

73

Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever

Hodgkin's lymphoma

74

Malignancy (kids)

ALL, medulloblastoma (cerebellum)

75

Mental retardation

Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome

76

Metastases to bone

Prostate, breast > lung > thyroid

77

Metastases to brain

Lung > breast > genitourinary > melanoma>GI

78

Metastases to liver

Colon >> stomach, pancreas

79

Mitochondrial inheritance

Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only

80

Mitral valve stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

81

Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

82

Myocarditis

Coxsackie B

83

Nephrotic syndrome (adults)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

84

Nephrotic syndrome (kids)

Minimal change disease

85

Neuron migration failure

Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia)

86

Nosocomial pneumonia

Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

87

Obstruction of male urinary tract

BPH

88

Opening snap

Mitral stenosis

89

Opportunistic infection in AIDS

Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly carinii) pneumonia

90

Osteomyelitis

S. aureus

91

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

Salmonella

92

Osteomyelitis with IV drug use

Pseudomonas, S. aureus

93

Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer

Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)

94

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)

Serous cystadenoma

95

Ovarian tumor (malignant)

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

96

Pancreatitis (acute)

Gallstones, alcohol

97

Pancreatitis (chronic)

Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

98

Patient with ALL /CLL /AML /CML

ALL: child, CLL: adult > 60, AML: adult - 65, CML: adult 30-60

99

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae

100

Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl)

CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)

101

Pituitary tumor

Prolactinoma, somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma

102

Primary amenorrhea

Turner syndrome (45,XO)

103

Primary bone tumor (adults)

Multiple myeloma

104

Primary hyperaldosteronism

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

105

Primary hyperparathyroidism

Adenomas, hyperplasia, carcinoma

106

Primary liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, α1 antitrypsin deficiency)

107

Pulmonary hypertension

COPD

108

Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities

Buerger disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

109

Renal tumor

Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

110

Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause

Cor pulmonale

111

S3 (protodiastolic gallop)

↑ ventricular filling (left-to-right shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])

112

S4 (presystolic gallop)

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

113

Secondary hyperparathyroidism

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

114

Sexually transmitted disease

Chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)

115

SIADH

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

116

Site of diverticula

Sigmoid colon

117

Sites of atherosclerosis

Abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery.

118

Stomach cancer

Adenocarcinoma

119

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)

120

t(14;18)

Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)

121

t(8;14)

Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)

122

t(9;22)

Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)

123

Temporal arteritis

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

124

Testicular tumor

Seminoma (malignant, radiosensitive)

125

Thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

126

Tumor in women

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

127

Tumor of infancy

Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

128

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

129

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

130

Type of Hodgkin's

Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

131

Type of non-Hodgkin's

Diffuse large cell

132

UTI

E. coli, Staphvlococcus saprophvticus (young women)

133

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe

HSV-1

134

Vitamin deficiency (U.S.)

Folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply; prevents neural tube defects)