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Flashcards in First Aid Deck (12):
1

Ghrelin
 

Stimulates hunger (orexigenic effect) and GH release (via GH secretagog receptor). Produced by stomach.

Sleep deprivation or Prader-Willi syndrome Žincreases ghrelin production.

 

*Ghrelin makes you hunghre.
 

2

Leptin

  1. Satiety hormone.
  2. Produced by adipose tissue.

 

  • Mutation of leptin gene causes congenital obesity.
  • Sleep deprivation or starvation decreases leptin production.

*Leptin keeps you thin.

3

Endocannabinoids

Act at cannabinoid receptors in hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens,

 

These are two key brain areas for the homeostatic and hedonic control of food intake incresing appetite.

 

*The munchies.
 

4

Enzyme Deficiency

17α-hydroxylase

Labs

Decrease: androstenedione

 


 

5

Enzyme Deficiency

21-hydroxylase

Labs:

  • Increase renin activity
  • increase 17-hydroxy-progesterone

6

Enzyme Deficiency

11β-hydroxylase

Labs

Decrease renin activity

7

Signaling pathways of endocrine hormones

cAMP

*FLAT ChAMP

  1. FSH
  2. LH
  3. ACTH
  4. TSH
  5. CRH
  6. hCG
  7. ADH (V2-receptor)
  8. MSH
  9. PTH
  10. calcitonin
  11. GHRH
  12. glucagon

8

Signaling pathways of endocrine hormones

cGMP

BAD GraMPa

  1. BNP
  2. ANP
  3. EDRF (NO)

Think vasodilators

9

Signaling pathways of endocrine hormones

IP3

GOAT HAG

  1. GnRH
  2. Oxytocin
  3. ADH (V1-receptor)
  4. TRH
  5. Histamine (H1-receptor)
  6. Angiotensin II
  7. Gastrin

10

Signaling pathways of endocrine hormones

Intracellular receptor

 

PET CAT on TV

  1. Progesterone
  2. Estrogen
  3. Testosterone
  4. Cortisol
  5. Aldosterone
  6. T3 /T
  7. Vitamin D

11

Signaling pathways of endocrine hormones

Receptor tyrosine kinase

  1. Insulin
  2. IGF-1
  3. FGF
  4. PDGF
  5. EGF

 

MAP kinase pathway Think growth factors

12

Signaling pathways of endocrine hormones

Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase

PIGGLET

Prolactin,

Immunomodulators (eg, cytokines, IL-2, IL-6, IFN),

GH

G-CSF

Erythropoietin

Thrombopoietin

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JAK/STAT pathway Think acidophils and cytokines