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Flashcards in First Aid Deck (62):
1

What does the primary survey involve?

Situational analysis and DRSABCD

2

What is the secondary survey?

Systemic examination. Relates to a person who is showing signs of life. You deal with injuries once the person is relatively stable

3

Where do you treat the casualty?

Preferably on site, unless it is dangerous to do so

4

What do you have to do when approaching the casualty?

Beware of hidden dangers
Approach the casualties and assess their condition
Consider your personal safety first

5

What are the four parts of situational analysis?

Establish what has happened
Prepare a plan of attack
Put your plan into action
Identify available resources

6

What does DRSABCD stand for

Danger
Response
Send for help
Airways
Breathing
Compression
Defibrillation

7

What do you have to do to check the airways?

Open their mouth and clear the mouth. tilt the head back and support the jaw
If there is an obstruction, turn the face to the side.

8

What are the three aspects of checking the Breathing?

Look, listen and feel

9

If breathing is present...

Turn the victim into the recovery position and monitor

10

What do compressions do?

Increase blood movement around the body

11

Is the pulse used?

No, only in the secondary survey

12

What is the purpose of defibrillation?

To stop an irregular heart rhythm using an electric shock. Implemented as a chain of survival

13

How many compressions per minute?

100

14

What are indications of Neck/spinal injuries

Severe pain at or below the site of injury
tingling at hands or feet
loss of sensation
impaired movement below the site of injury

15

How do you manage neck/spinal injuries?

if the patient has to be moved, support the head and neck.
Seek medical attention

16

What is the acronym for managing external bleeding?

Pressure
Immobilisation
Elevation

17

How do you apply pressure to an external wound?

Cover wound with sterile pad and bandage. If nothing is in the wound, direct pressure can be applied. Do not remove foreign objects

18

How do you immobolise and elevate an external wound?

Use a sling or ensure that the body part remains still
Elevate above the heart

19

What causes internal bleeding?

Rupturing of blood vessels, organs, or direct force

20

Indications of internal bleeding

pain and swelling
shock symptoms
hardness and swelling of abs

21

To manage internal bleeding...

Help into comfortable postition
Loosen tight clothing
cover with blanket
reassure
seek medical assistance
DON'T give them food or water

22

What is shock?

When their body doesn't supply enough blood to the organs, tissues and muscles.

23

What do signs of life refer to?

Breathing normally
consciousness
responsiveness
ability to move
skin colour/temperature

24

How should the Response check be carried out

The question or command (COWS) should be shouted while you squeeze their shoulders

25

What does CPR stand for

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

26

What are the four things that the 'chain of survival' needs to increase the chance of survival

Early access to help
CPR
Defibrillation
advanced life support

27

What is STOP?

Injury management for injuries that aren't fatal (sports)
Stop
Talk
Observe
Prevent further injury

28

What is systemic examination?

Examining the casualty

29

What needs to be examined in the Secondary Survey

Head
Spine
Chest
Abdomen
Pelvic area
Legs

Helpful Sally Carried Andrew's Plastic Legs

30

What is the aim of CPR?

To provide a rhythmic artificial flow around the body

31

How do you perform CPR

1. Position yourself and the casualty
2. Place the centre of your hand on the lower sternum
3. Grab the wrist of that hand and compress
4. 30c/2b

32

CPR on a younger child...

one hand

33

CPR on an infant

two fingers

34

Why do rescue breathing?

It inflates the victims lungs.

35

Where is rescue breathing done?

Mouth to mouth, or mouth to nose

36

What are the steps to rescue breathing?

1. Tilt the head back to open airway, if it isnt an infant. Position one hand on top of the head, the other on the chin and open mouth. Remove any obstructions
2.Make sure they are on their back. Take a deep breath and seal your mouth over the casualties. Seal their nose. Make sure there is a barrier
3.Give two full breaths, one per second. Check the chest rises and falls
4. Remove mouth. Look,listen and feel for breath

37

what is the main function of the circulatory system?

To remove waste
regulate ph and body temperature
carry immune cells
transport oxygen/carbon dioxide

38

What happens to blood pressure and damaged vessels in response to bleeding

Blood pressure drops, damaged vessels constrict

39

How do you control external bleeding?

PIE
Pressure
Immobilisation
Elevation

40

Indications of internal bleeding:

Pain and swelling
hardness, swelling of abdominals
shock

41

To manage internal bleeding

help into comfortable position
loosen tight clothing
cover with blanket
reassure
DO NOT GIVE THEM FOOD OR WATER
seek medical assistance

42

Why does the body experience shock?

It is a circulatory response where the body fails to provide adequate blood supply to organs, tissues, muscles

43

Signs/symptoms of shock:

Cold, pale, sweaty skin
rapid, weak pulse
rapid, shallow breathing
nausea or vomiting
anxiety
thirst, dizziness
drowsiness, becoming unresponsive

44

To manage shock

Conduct primary survey
cover wounds/burns
immobilise fractures
moisten lips with water
elevate legs
reassure, seek medical assistance
DO NOT GIVE THEM FOOD OR WATER

45

Indications of spinal injuries:

severe pain
tingling sensation in hands or feet
loss of sensation
impaired movement

46

Four methods of moving a casualty

drag method
human crutch method
four handed seat method
chair lift.

47

What is the drag method?

Used to move casualty in times of danger
support head, drag from armpits

48

What to tell in a medical referral:

what happened
number of casualties
symptoms
location
action taken and care required

49

when a spinal injury is suspected:

roll casualty into recovery position
straight spine
proceed with primary survey

50

indications of a heart attack

crushing pain in chest and arms
fatigue
excessive perspiration
dizziness
difficulty breathing
fever\collapse

51

to manage a heart attack or stroke

Help them to a comfortable resting position
loosen tight clothing
conduct primary survey
seek medical assistance

52

what is a stroke, and what are the types

a sudden interruption to the blood supply to the brain
ischaemic
haemorrhagic

53

haemorrhagic stroke

a bleed in the brain

54

ischaemic stroke

a blockage in an artery to the brain

55

transient ischaemic attack

a mini stroke, where the clot is on the move

56

atherosclerosis

when the arteries are clogged with fatty buildup, they become narrower, restricting blood flow to the brain. causes an ischaemic stroke

57

signs/symptoms of stroke

sudden weakness/numbness in the face, arm or leg on one side
slurred speech
dizziness or confusion
loss of bladder or bowel control

58

What is diabetes?

a condition where the body cannot process carbohydrates (sugar and starch). The pancreas cannot effectively secrete insulin, which results in accumulated concentrations of sugar in the blood

59

hypoglycaemia

a type of diabetes caused by insufficient food or exercising to excess. blood sugar levels are reduced
SS dizziness, nausea, confusion, rapid pulse, shallow breathing
MANAGEMENT give them sugar if conscious

60

Hyperglycaemia

results from not taking insulin
SS drowsiness, thirst, unconsciousness, 'fruity' breath
MANAGEMENT need insulin and medical support

61

Epilepsy

sudden surges of disorganised electrical brain activity
petit mal
grand mal

62

how to manage epilepsy

ensure they are safe, contact medical support