First Aid - Immunology rando stuff Flashcards Preview

First Aid > First Aid - Immunology rando stuff > Flashcards

Flashcards in First Aid - Immunology rando stuff Deck (141)
1

LND: cervical

head and neck

2

LND: hilar

lung

3

LND: mediastinal

trachea and esophagus

4

LND: axillary

upper limb, breast skin above umbilicus

5

LND: celiac

liver, stomach, spleen, pancreas, upper duodenum

6

LND: S. mesenteric

lower duodenum, jejunum, illeum, colon to splenic flexure

7

LND: I. mesenteric

colon from splenic flexure to upper rectum

8

LND: internal iliac

lower rectum to anal canal above pectinate line, bladder, vaginal (middle third), prostate

9

LND: para-aortic

testes, ovaries, kidneys, uterus

10

LND: superficial inguinal

anal canal (below pectinate line, skin below umbilicus (except popliteal territory)

11

LND: popliteal

dorsolateral foot, posterior calf

12

LND: right lymphatic duct

right side above diaphragm

13

LND: thoracic duct

everything else and goes into left subclavian and internal jugular

14

encapsulated bacteria

S. pneumo, H. flu B, N. men, E. coli, Salmonella, Kleb., GBS

15

what pharyngeal pouch does thymus come from?

3rd

16

where in the spleen are T cells

periarterial lymphatic sheath within white pulp

17

where in the spleen are B cells?

follicles in the white pulp

18

what is the marginal zone?

area between red and white pulp comtaining APCs and specialized B cells. APCs present blood borne antigens.

19

What features do you see post-splenectomy?

howell jolly bodies, target cells, thrombocytosis

20

function of MHC I versus MHC II

MHC I - endogenous antigens to CD8+ T cells
MHC II - exogenous proteins to T helper cells

21

antigen loading in MHC I versus MHC II

MHC I - RER after delivery via TAP
MHC II - release of invariant chain into acidified endosome

22

HLA A3

hemochromatosis

23

HLA B27

Psoriatic arthritis, Ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis of IBD, Readtive arthritis

24

HLA DQ2/DQ8

Celiac

25

HLA DR2

MS, hay fever, SLE, Goodpasture

26

HLA DR3

DM type I, SLE, Graves

27

HLA DR4

Rheumatoid arthritis, DM type I

28

HLA DR5

Pernicious anemia --> vit. B12 deficiency, Hashimoto thyroiditis

29

what enhances NK cell activity?

IL 2, IL 12, IFNb, IFNa

30

what induces NK killing

nonspecific activation signal and/or lack of MHC I

31

How do NK cells kill?

Ab-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity: CD 16 binds Fc of bound Ig --> activating NK cells

32

Th cells release ___ to activate TH1

IL12

33

Th cells release ___ to activate TH2

IL4

34

Th cells release ___ to activate TH17

TGFb and IL6

35

Th cells release ___ to activate Threg

TGFb

36

what are the two signals in T cell activation?

1. antigen on MHC II recognized by TCR on Th or MHC I to Tc
2. B7 and CD28

37

What are the two signals in B cell activation?

1. antigen on MHC II recognized by TCR on Th
2. CD40 on B cells binding to CD40L on Th to release cytokines for class switching

38

what do Th1 cells secrete?

IFNg to activate macrophages and CTLs

39

What are Th1 cells inhibited by?

IL4 and IL10

40

What do Th2 cells secrete?

IL4, IL5, IL6, IL13 to recruit eosinophils for parasite defense and promotes IgE production by B cells

41

What are Th2 cells inhibited by

IFNg

42

macrophage- lymphocyte interaction

macrophage=> IL12 --> stimulates T cells --> Th1=> IFNg --> stimulates macrophages

43

t reg function

suppress CD4 and CD8 t cell effector function

44

cell surface markers on t regs

CD3, CD4, CD25, FOXP3

45

Activated t regs produce what?

IL10 and TGFb

46

upregulated acute phase reactants in inflammation

serum amyloid A, CRP, ferritin, fibrinogen, hepcidin

47

downregulated acute phase reactants in inflammation

albumin, transferrin

48

What cytokines induce acute phase reactants?

IL6, IL1, TNFa, IFNg

49

C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency

hereditary angioedema. ACE inhibitors are contraindicated

50

C3 deficiency

increased risk of severe, recurrent pyogenic sinus and respiratory tract infections: increased susceptibility to type III hypersensitivity reactions

51

C5-9 deficiencies

Neisseria bacteria

52

DAF (GPI anchored enzyme) deficiency

complement mediated lysis of RBCs and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

53

what cytokines are secreted by macrophages?

IL1, IL6, IL8, IL12, TNFa

54

What cytokines are secreted by all t cells?

IL2, IL3

55

What cytokines are secreted by Th1

IFNg

56

What cytokines are secreted by Th2

IL4, IL5, IL10

57

IL1

fever, activates endothelium to express adhesion molecules, induces chemokin secretion to recruit leukocytes

58

IL2

growth of Th, Tc, Tregs

59

IL3

stimulates bone morrow stem cells, GM-CSF like

60

IL 4

induces Th2 differentiations, growth of B cells, class switching to IgE and IgG

61

IL5

B cell differentiation, class swtiching to IgA, growth and differentiation of eosinophils

62

IL6

fever and acute phase proteins

63

IL8

chemotactice factor for neutrophils

64

il 10

modulates inflammatory response. Inhibits actions of activated T cells and Th1, secreted by T reg and Th2

65

IL12

differentiation of T cells into Th1, activates BK cells, secreted by B and macrophages

66

TNFa

septic shock mediator, activates endothelium. Causes leukocyte recruitment, vascular leaks

67

IFNg

antiviral, antitumor. Activates NK cells to kill virus infected cells. Increases MHC expression and antigen presentation in cells

68

cell surface proteins on t cells

TCR, CD3, CD28 (CD4 and CD40L on Th; CD8 on Tc)

69

cell surface proteins on B cells

Ig, CD 19, CD20, CD21, CD40, MHC II, B7

70

cell surface proteins on macrophages

CD14, C40, MHC II, B7, Fc and C3b receptors

71

cell surface proteins on NK cells

CD16, CD56

72

superantigens

s. pyogenes, s. aureus
cross link beta region on the TCR --> massive release of cytokines

73

endotoxin/LPS

stimulate macrophages by binding C14

74

antigenic variation examples

bacteria: salmonella (2 flagella), borrelia, n. gonorrhea (pilus)
virus - influenza
parasites: trypansomes (programmed reearrangement

75

anaphylaxis

type I

76

allergic and atopic disorder

type I

77

AI hemolytic anemia

type II

78

pernicious aneia

type II

79

ITP

type II

80

erythroblastosis fetalis

type II

81

acute hemolytic transfusion reaction

type II

82

rheumatic fever

type II

83

goodpasture syndrome

type II

84

bullous pemphigoid

type II

85

pemphigus vulgaris

type II

86

SLE

type III

87

polyarteritis nodosa

type III

88

poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

type III

89

serum sickness

type III

90

arthus reaction

type III

91

multiple sclerosis

type IV

92

guillain barre

type IV

93

graft versus host disease

type IV

94

ppd

type IV

95

contact dermatitis (poison ivy, nickel)

type IV

96

anti-Ach receptor

myasthenia gravis

97

anti-BM

goodpasture

98

anti-cardiolipin

SLE, antiphospholipid syndrome

99

lupus anticoagulant

SLE, antiphospholipid syndrome

100

anticentromere

limited scleroderma (CREST)

101

anti-desmoglein

pemphigus vulgaris

102

anti-dsDNA

SLE

103

anti-Smith

SLE

104

Anti-glutamate decarboxylase

DM type I

105

Anti-hemidesmosome

bullous pemphigoid

106

antihistone

drug induced lupus

107

anti jo-1

polymyositis, dermatomyositis

108

anti-SRP

polymyositis, dermatomyositis

109

anti-Mi2

polymyositis, dermatomyositis

110

antimicrosomal

hashimoto's thyroiditis

111

antithyroglobulin

hashimoto's thyroiditis

112

antimitochondrial

primary biliary cirrhosis

113

antinuclear antibodies

SLE, nonspecific

114

anti-Scl 70

diffuse scleroderma

115

anti-DNA topoisomerase I

diffuse scleroderma

116

anti-smooth muscle

autoimmune hepatitis

117

anti-ssa

sjogren's

118

anti-ssb

sjogren's

119

anti-Ro

sjogren's

120

anti-La

sjogren's

121

anti-TSH receptor

Graves

122

Anti-U1 RNP

mixed connective tissue disease

123

c-ANCA (PR3-ANCA)

granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener)

124

IgA antiendomysial

Celiac

125

IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase

celiac

126

p-ANCA (MPO-ANCA)

microscopic polyangitis, Churg-strauss

127

RF (IgM to IgG Fc region)

RA

128

anti-CCP

RA

129

alemtuzumab

CD52; CLL

130

Bevacizumab

VEGF; renal cell carcinoma, colorectal cancer

131

cetuximab

EGFR; stage IV colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer

132

rituximab

CD20; B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, rheumatoid arthritis (with MTX), ITP

133

Trastuzumab

HER2/neu; breast cancer gastric cancer

134

Infliximab

TNFa; IBD, RA, AS, psoriasis

135

adalimumab

TNFa; IBD, RA, AS, psoriasis

136

Natalizumab

a4 integrin; MS, CD

137

Abciximab

Gp Iib/IIIa; antiplatelet for ischemic complications for percutaneous coronary intervention

138

denosumab

RANKL; osteoporosis

139

digoxin immune Fab

digoxin; antidote for toxicity

140

omalizumab

IgE; allergic asthma, preent IgE binding FceRI

141

Palivizumab

RSV F protein; RSV prophylaxis for high-risk infants