First & Second Language Acquisition (Part II) Flashcards Preview

LING 100 > First & Second Language Acquisition (Part II) > Flashcards

Flashcards in First & Second Language Acquisition (Part II) Deck (30):

the study of second language acquisition

- focus on language teaching in 1950s and 1960s
- the shift from focusing on teacher to the learner in 1970s
- the shift from behaviourism to cognitive psychology, focusing on children's internal grammars
- the application of some knowledge in first language acquisition to second language acquisition
- SLA learners are subjects to an influence of the first language acquisition
- interlanguage grammar is influenced by the first and second language, has features of both
- the target of IL is actual proficiency for communicative competence
- textual competence, sociolinguistic competence, illocutionary competence
- analysis of mistakes that are subjects of transfer from the first language
- the imperfect use of linguistic knowledge rather than the deficits in the knowledge itself
- the goal of SLA is to shift processing from controlled to automatic


interlanguage grammar

- system of mental representations influenced by both the first and second language and has features of each



- describes the process whereby a feature or rule from a learner's first language is carried over to the interlanguage grammar



- when the interlanguage grammar stops changing


communicative competence

- the learner must be able to use the language in a way that is appropriate to the situation or context


textual competence

- recognizes the ability to string sentences together appropriately


sociolinguistic competence

- involves the ability to use the linguistic register appropriate to the situation


illocutionary competence

- refers to the ability to comprehend a speaker's intent



- more than half of the world's populatino is bilingual


simultaneous bilingualism

- bilingual from birth or at least from a very early age


successive bilingualism

- others have become bilingual later in life
- occurs when a child learns a second language after the first language has been established


additive bilingualism

- a second language has been added to the first
- late in life
- happens very often for occupational purposes


subtractive bilingualism

- the second language ultimately replaces the first


bilingual education program

- minority-language maintenance programs
- french immersion programs


minority-language maintenance programs

- minority-language children often have difficulty in majority-language schools
- these children suffer a setback in their education
- receive their initial instruction in the minority language. the majority language is gradually introduced
- performing as well as their peers by grade 6
- receiving instruction in L1 does not have negative effects on the L2


french immersion programs

- increase in students over the years
- it is the teaching in French, not the teaching of French
- native speakers of French do not enroll
- by grade 6, students from french immersion outperform their monolingual peers


dual language programs

- students from two linguistic backgrounds are formally instructed in both languages


benefits of bilingualism

- increased syntactic complexity in the L1
- higher scores on the SAT
- increased sensitivity to the needs of the listener
- higher scores on tests of analogical reasoning
- higher scores on test of mathematical ability
- delay in the onset of symptoms in cases of dementia


does a bilingual speaker represent each language in different areas of the brain?

- there is evidence of different degrees of recovery in each language after a stroke
- Ojemann and Whitaker found that electrical stimulation of certain areas interrupted naming in both languages, where stimulation of other areas interrupted naming in only one language
- naming in L2 involves activation in areas that are involved on L1
- lexical and semantic judgement of words activate mostly overlapping areas of the brain


what effects does age of second language acquisition have on brain representation?

- work in event-related potentials (ERP) suggests that second language learning is better in those who learn their second language early
- PET scans have found that listening to passages in a first language results in an activation of area that is not apparent in the second language for late second language learners
- 'yes and no'
- learning before age 7 will have nativelike L2 speech
- after age 14 might have non-native L2 speech
- older learners initially learn faster, younger learners outperform older learners in the long run
- young learners are more successful in SLA
- older learners are more efficient


affective factors

- have to do with the emotional side of learning a second languaeg


integrative motivation

- wanting to fit better in a particular culture


instrumental motivation

- wanting to learn the L2 for a specific purpose or a goal



- degree of motivation is a better predictor of future learning than is type of motivation
- degree is high you will learn a language quicker and better


different strategies for learning a second language

- has to be learned deliberately
- learners who are field independent are not distracted by irrelevant background information, more successful in SLA
- learners who are field dependent can be distracted by all kinds of background information, less successful in SLA
- L2 learners need to be concerned with both accuracy and fluency


approaches to second language teaching

- contrastive approach
- interlanguage approach


contrastive approach

- the mother tongue and a second language are compared to find common and non-common features


interlanguage approach

- the learner builds up his/her own rules and speaks a language which is neither the target language nor the mother tongue
- associated with the study of the ways in which nonnative speakers acquire, comprehend, and use linguistic patterns


the second language learning process (SLL)

- the nature-nuture debate
- chomsky believed that second language learners are still using universal grammar when learning


issues in SLL

- the SLL process is complex
- the SLL process is gradual
- the SLL process is nonlinear
- the SLL process is dynamic
- learners learn when they are ready to do so
- learners rely on the knowledge and experience they have
- there is tremendous individual variation among language learners
- learning a language is a social phenomenon