Flashcards in First Year Flashbacks -- Fergie Ferg Deck (59):
Lateral Fissure of Sylvius
Separates the frontal and temporal lobe
Separates the frontal and parietal lobe
On the medial aspect of the brain -- separates the frontal and parietal lobes
Where is Broca's Area located?
Frontal lobe adjacent to the primary motor cortex
Damage to Broca's Area looks like what?
Impaired language production with intact language comprehension
Where is Wernicke's area located?
Superior temporal gyrus of the temporal lobe
What does damage to Wernicke's area look like?
Impaired language comprehension with intact language production in some sense -- the language makes no sense but has normal fluency and prosody (rhythm and emotional tone inflections of speech)
-Controls movement of contralateral side of the body
Where is the premotor cortex located?
Anterior to the main motor strip
Damage to premotor cortex looks like what?
Apraxia - disruption of planning of patterning and execution of learned motor movements; often affects the frontal eye field
Where is the prefrontal cortex located and what does a lesion look like?
-Anterior frontal lobe
-Apathy and abulia (dramatic lack of motivation)
Where is motor cortex located and what does a lesion look like?
-Anterior to central sulcus
-Lateral frontal lobe issue = facial weakness
-High frontal lobe issue = arm and leg weakness
-Second largest lobe
-Interprets sensory of contralateral body
-Primary somatosensory cortex
-Posterior parietal association cortex
Primary Somatosensory Cortex: location and lesion symptoms
-Posterior to central sulcus
-Light touch, pressure, 2 point discrimination, temperature
-Contralateral impairment of all somatosensory input
Posterior parietal association cortex: location and lesion symptoms
-Posterior to somatosensory cortex
-Astereognosia: inability to recognize objects based on touch alone
-Visual Cortex (primary visual cortex, visual association cortex)
Lesion in the optic nerve looks like....
Loss of vision in eye on that side
Lesion at optic chasm looks like...
Lost lateral vision in BOTH eyes
Lesion at optic TRACT looks like...
If on Right side; Loss of LEFT visual field in both eyes
If on Left side; Loss of RIGHT visual field in both eyes
Lesion in Optic Radiation looks like...
If on right side in temporal lobe; Loss of UPPER LEFT vision in both eyes
If on left side in temporal lobe; loss of UPPER RIGHT vision in both eyes
*parietal lobe = LOWER
Lesion in occipital cortex looks like...
On right side; loss of Left visual field with retinal sparing
On left side; loss of Right visual field with retinal sparing
Cortical blindness due to lesion of both occipital lobes
- Profound anosognosia = lack of regard for deficit
Primary visual cortex: location and lesion symptoms
-Medial aspect of the occipital lobe adjacent to the inter hemispheric fissure
- scotoma (blind spot)
Visual Association Cortex: location and lesion symptoms
- borders of the occipital lobe with the temporal and parietal lobes
- motion and depth perception, spatial representation, color differentiation
- achromatopsia: complete loss of color appreciation in the contralateral visual field
-prosopagnosia: inability to recognize faces
-visual agnosia: inability to recognize visual patterns, including objects, without having a visual field cut
- Below frontal and parietal lobes
- integration of memory and production of the emotional response
- houses the primary auditory cortex
- Primary Auditory Cortex
Primary Auditory Cortex: location and lesion symptoms
-deep within the lateral sulcus; occupies the 2 transverse gyro of Heschl
- interprets sounds
- component of Wernicke's area in the dominant hemisphere
- Wernicke's type aphasia -- receptive aphasia; inability to comprehend speech or written word; nonsensical "word-salad"
Major sensory input from the ascending tracks from the spinal cord, brainstem, basal ganglia, and cerebellum
*relay "switch" for the brain*
What are the 2 motor nuclei of the thalamus?
1. Ventral Anterior (VA)
2. Ventral Lateral (VL)
VA gets input from where?
VL gets input form where?
Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum
What are the Sensory Nuclei?
1. Ventral Posteromedial (VPM)
2. Ventral Posterolateral (VPL)
3. Medial Geniculate Nucleus
4. Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
VPM gets input form where?
VPL gets input form where?
Medial Lemniscus and Spinothalamic Tract
Medial geniculate nucleus gets input from where?
Auditory pathway (ACS LIMA)
Superior Olive (Pons)
Lateral Lemniscus (Pons)
Inferior Colliculus (mid brain)
Medial Geniculate (thalamus)
Auditory Association Cortex
Lateral geniculate nucleus gets input from where?
A lesion in the dorsal medial nucleus results in what?
The dorsal medial nucleus gets input from where?
Memory and emotion
The pulvinar is responsible for what?
What 2 hypothalamic nuclei are involved in water balance?
*Synthesize ADH and Oxytocin
A lesion in the Paraventricular or Supraoptic nucleus results in what?
Central Diabetes Insipidus
Excess Water Consumption
What nucleus is the satiety center? What does a lesion here cause?
What nucleus is the hunger center? What does a lesion here cause?
Lateral Hypothalamic Area
No desire to eat (aphagia -- refusal to eat or swallow)
What nucleus senses increases in temperature and induces sweating? What does a lesion here cause?
Anterior Hypothalamic Area
What nucleus senses decreases in body temperature and induces shivering? What does a lesion here cause?
Posterior Hypothalamic Area
Poikilothermy -- body temperature varying with environment
What nucleus obtains visual input from the retina via the optic tract?
Sets the circadian rhythym
What nucleus is part of the limbic system and is critical to the formation of memory? What does a lesion here cause?
Anterograde/Retrograde memory impairment
Papez Circuit -- memory formation (limbic system)
Anterior Nucleus (thalamus)
-Confusion, Ataxia, Ophthalmoparesis
-Deficient Vitamin B1
-Damage to mammillary bodies (necrosis)
If patients survive Wernicke's Encephalopathy, what condition do they often suffer from?
Anterograde and Retrograde amnesia with confabulation
-Collection of nuclei in the deep white matter
-Motor planning and performance
-Caudate + Putamen = Striatum
-Globus pallidus, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus
-Promotes and inhibits movements
Input to basal ganglia
Supplementary Motor Cortex
Main output from basal ganglia
Direct Pathway of Basal Ganglia
Info from cerebral cortex (premotor)
Internal Globus Pallidus
ACTIVATE primary motor cortex
Indirect Pathway of Basal Ganglia
Info from supplemental motor area
External Globus Pallidus
Caudate/Putamen lesion causes...
Subthalamic Nucleus lesion causes...
Substantia Nigra lesion or degneration results in...