First Year Flashbacks -- Fergie Ferg Flashcards Preview

Disease/Therapeutics 2 Exam 1 > First Year Flashbacks -- Fergie Ferg > Flashcards

Flashcards in First Year Flashbacks -- Fergie Ferg Deck (59):
1

Lateral Fissure of Sylvius

Separates the frontal and temporal lobe

2

Central Sulcus

Separates the frontal and parietal lobe

3

Cingulate Sulcus

On the medial aspect of the brain -- separates the frontal and parietal lobes

4

Where is Broca's Area located?

Frontal lobe adjacent to the primary motor cortex

5

Damage to Broca's Area looks like what?

Impaired language production with intact language comprehension

6

Where is Wernicke's area located?

Superior temporal gyrus of the temporal lobe

7

What does damage to Wernicke's area look like?

Impaired language comprehension with intact language production in some sense -- the language makes no sense but has normal fluency and prosody (rhythm and emotional tone inflections of speech)

8

Frontal lobe

-Largest Lobe
-Controls movement of contralateral side of the body
-Premotor Cortex
-Prefrontal Cortex
-Motor Cortex

9

Where is the premotor cortex located?

Anterior to the main motor strip

10

Damage to premotor cortex looks like what?

Apraxia - disruption of planning of patterning and execution of learned motor movements; often affects the frontal eye field

11

Where is the prefrontal cortex located and what does a lesion look like?

-Anterior frontal lobe
-Apathy and abulia (dramatic lack of motivation)

12

Where is motor cortex located and what does a lesion look like?

-Anterior to central sulcus
-Motor Humunculous
-Lateral frontal lobe issue = facial weakness
-High frontal lobe issue = arm and leg weakness

13

Parietal Lobe

-Second largest lobe
-Interprets sensory of contralateral body
-Primary somatosensory cortex
-Posterior parietal association cortex

14

Primary Somatosensory Cortex: location and lesion symptoms

-Posterior to central sulcus
-Light touch, pressure, 2 point discrimination, temperature
-Sensory Humunculous
-Contralateral impairment of all somatosensory input

15

Posterior parietal association cortex: location and lesion symptoms

-Posterior to somatosensory cortex
-Apraxia
-Astereognosia: inability to recognize objects based on touch alone

16

Occipital Lobe

Visual Interpretation
-Visual Cortex (primary visual cortex, visual association cortex)

17

Lesion in the optic nerve looks like....

Loss of vision in eye on that side

18

Lesion at optic chasm looks like...

Lost lateral vision in BOTH eyes

19

Lesion at optic TRACT looks like...

If on Right side; Loss of LEFT visual field in both eyes
If on Left side; Loss of RIGHT visual field in both eyes

20

Lesion in Optic Radiation looks like...

If on right side in temporal lobe; Loss of UPPER LEFT vision in both eyes
If on left side in temporal lobe; loss of UPPER RIGHT vision in both eyes

*parietal lobe = LOWER

21

Lesion in occipital cortex looks like...

On right side; loss of Left visual field with retinal sparing
On left side; loss of Right visual field with retinal sparing

22

Anton's Syndrome

Cortical blindness due to lesion of both occipital lobes
- Profound anosognosia = lack of regard for deficit

23

Primary visual cortex: location and lesion symptoms

-Medial aspect of the occipital lobe adjacent to the inter hemispheric fissure
- scotoma (blind spot)

24

Visual Association Cortex: location and lesion symptoms

- borders of the occipital lobe with the temporal and parietal lobes
- motion and depth perception, spatial representation, color differentiation
- achromatopsia: complete loss of color appreciation in the contralateral visual field
-prosopagnosia: inability to recognize faces
-visual agnosia: inability to recognize visual patterns, including objects, without having a visual field cut

25

Temporal Lobe

- Below frontal and parietal lobes
- integration of memory and production of the emotional response
- houses the primary auditory cortex
- Primary Auditory Cortex

26

Primary Auditory Cortex: location and lesion symptoms

-deep within the lateral sulcus; occupies the 2 transverse gyro of Heschl
- interprets sounds
- component of Wernicke's area in the dominant hemisphere
- Wernicke's type aphasia -- receptive aphasia; inability to comprehend speech or written word; nonsensical "word-salad"

27

Thalamus

Major sensory input from the ascending tracks from the spinal cord, brainstem, basal ganglia, and cerebellum
*relay "switch" for the brain*

28

What are the 2 motor nuclei of the thalamus?

1. Ventral Anterior (VA)
2. Ventral Lateral (VL)

29

VA gets input from where?

Basal Ganglia

30

VL gets input form where?

Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum

31

What are the Sensory Nuclei?

1. Ventral Posteromedial (VPM)
2. Ventral Posterolateral (VPL)
3. Medial Geniculate Nucleus
4. Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

32

VPM gets input form where?

Trigeminal Nucleus
(MOUTH)

33

VPL gets input form where?

Medial Lemniscus and Spinothalamic Tract
(LIMBS)

34

Medial geniculate nucleus gets input from where?

Inferior colliculus
Sounds

35

Auditory pathway (ACS LIMA)

Acoustic Nerve
Cochlea Nucleus
Superior Olive (Pons)
Lateral Lemniscus (Pons)
Inferior Colliculus (mid brain)
Medial Geniculate (thalamus)
Auditory Association Cortex

36

Lateral geniculate nucleus gets input from where?

Optic tract
(LIGHT)

37

A lesion in the dorsal medial nucleus results in what?

Amnesia

38

The dorsal medial nucleus gets input from where?

Limbic system
Memory and emotion

39

The pulvinar is responsible for what?

Visual attention

40

What 2 hypothalamic nuclei are involved in water balance?

Paraventricular
Supraoptic

*Synthesize ADH and Oxytocin

41

A lesion in the Paraventricular or Supraoptic nucleus results in what?

Central Diabetes Insipidus
Polyuria
Excess Water Consumption

42

What nucleus is the satiety center? What does a lesion here cause?

Ventromedial Nucleus
OBESITY

43

What nucleus is the hunger center? What does a lesion here cause?

Lateral Hypothalamic Area
No desire to eat (aphagia -- refusal to eat or swallow)

44

What nucleus senses increases in temperature and induces sweating? What does a lesion here cause?

Anterior Hypothalamic Area
Hyperthermia

45

What nucleus senses decreases in body temperature and induces shivering? What does a lesion here cause?

Posterior Hypothalamic Area
Poikilothermy -- body temperature varying with environment

46

What nucleus obtains visual input from the retina via the optic tract?

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
Sets the circadian rhythym

47

What nucleus is part of the limbic system and is critical to the formation of memory? What does a lesion here cause?

Mamillary Bodies
Anterograde/Retrograde memory impairment

48

Papez Circuit -- memory formation (limbic system)

H. MACE
Hippocampus
Mammillary Bodies
Anterior Nucleus (thalamus)
Cingulate Gyrus
Entorhinal Cortex

49

Wernicke's Encephalopathy

-Confusion, Ataxia, Ophthalmoparesis
-Alcoholism/Malnourished
-Deficient Vitamin B1
-Damage to mammillary bodies (necrosis)

50

If patients survive Wernicke's Encephalopathy, what condition do they often suffer from?

Korsakoff's Syndrome
Anterograde and Retrograde amnesia with confabulation

51

Basal Ganglia

-Collection of nuclei in the deep white matter
-Motor planning and performance
-Caudate + Putamen = Striatum
-Globus pallidus, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus
-Promotes and inhibits movements

52

Input to basal ganglia

Brainstem
Cerebellum
Thalamus
Supplementary Motor Cortex

53

Main output from basal ganglia

Thalamus (VA/VL)

54

Direct Pathway of Basal Ganglia

Info from cerebral cortex (premotor)
Striatum
Internal Globus Pallidus
VL
ACTIVATE primary motor cortex

(STIMULATES movement)

55

Indirect Pathway of Basal Ganglia

Info from supplemental motor area
Striatum
External Globus Pallidus
Subthalamic Nucleus
INHIBITS VL

(NO movement)

56

Caudate/Putamen lesion causes...

Chorea

57

Subthalamic Nucleus lesion causes...

Hemiballismus

58

Substantia Nigra lesion or degneration results in...

Parkinsonism

59

Huntington Disease

-Hyperkinetic (fast irregular movements)
-Trinucleotide expansion of CAG
-Hungtington Gene
-Chromosome 4
-Genetic Anticipation