Fiser Chapter 9 FLUIDS & ELECTROLYTES Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fiser Chapter 9 FLUIDS & ELECTROLYTES Deck (23):
1

Total body water

2/3 of body weight in men
2/3 of TBW is intracellular
1/3 of TBW is extracellular
2/3 of ECW is interstitial
1/3 of ECW is in plasma

2

Treatment of hyperkalemia

Calcium gluconate
Sodium bicarbonate
10 U inline and 1 ampule 50% dextrose
Kayexalate
Dialysis

3

Treatment of hypernatremia

D5 water slowly

4

Treatment of hyponatremia

Water restriction --> diuresis
Correct by up to 1 mEq/h

5

Hypercalcemia treatment

(from breast cancer or hyperparathyroid)
NS 200-300cc/h and Lasix
For malignant disease: mithramycin, calcitonin, alendronic acid, dialysis
NO LR or thiazides

6

Hypocalcemia treatment

Mag first

7

Hypermagnesium tx

Calcium

8

Hypomagnesium causes

(d/t massive diuresis, chronic TPN without minerals, EtOH abuse)

9

Anion gap equation

Na - (HCO3 + CL)
Normal

10

High anion gap acidosis causes

MUDPILE
Methanol
Uremia
DKA
Paraldehydes
Isoniazid
Lactic acidosis
Ethylene glycol
Salicylates

11

Normal anion gap acidosis

Usually loss of Na/HCO3 (ileostomies, small bowel fistulas)

12

Metabolic alkalosis causes

Usually contraction alkalosis
NG suction -> hypochloremic, hypokalemic, metabolic alkalosis and paradoxical aciduria
Tx: HS to correct CL deficit

13

FeNa equation

Urine Na/Cr / Plasma Na/Cr
Fena

14

Tumor lysis syndrome mechanism and tx

Release of purines and pyrimidines -> increased PO4 and uric acid, decreased Ca
Renal damage and EKG changes
Tx: Hydration, rasburicase, allopurinol, diuretics, alkalinize urine

15

Sweat electrolyte losses

Hypotonic (Na concentration 35-65)
Replace with NS

16

Saliva electrolyte losses

K+ (highest concentration of K in body)

17

Stomach electrolyte losses

H+ and Cl-
Replace gastric losses with D5 1/2 NS with 20mg K+

18

Pancreas electrolyte losses

HCO3-
Replace with LR and HCO3-

19

Bile electrolyte losses

HCO3-
Replace with LR and HCO3-

20

Small bowel fistula electrolyte losses

HCO3- and K+
Replace with LR and HCO3-

21

Large intestine electrolyte losses (diarrhea)

K+
Replace with LR and K+

22

GI losses replacement amount

cc/cc

23

Dehydration (marathon runner) replacement

NS