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Flashcards in Fitness Terms Deck (53):


Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that’s found in all cells of the body. Your body needs some cholesterol to make hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help you digest foods. Your body makes all the cholesterol it needs. However, cholesterol also is found in some of the foods you eat. Cholesterol travels through your bloodstream in small packages called lipoproteins (lip-o-PRO-teens). These packages are made of fat (lipid) on the inside and proteins on the outside.


LDL (bad) cholesterol

is the bad one. LDL collects in the walls of blood vessels, causing the blockages of atherosclerosis. Higher LDL levels put you at greater risk for a heart attack from a sudden blood clot in an artery narrowed by atherosclerosis.


High Density Lipoprotein, HDL

(good) cholesterol-HDL cholesterol is the well-behaved "good cholesterol." This friendly scavenger cruises the bloodstream. As it does, it removes harmful bad cholesterol from where it doesn't belong. High HDL levels reduce the risk for heart disease -- but low levels increase the risk.



are a type of fat (lipid) found in your blood. When you eat, your body converts any calories it doesn't need to use right away into triglycerides. The triglycerides are stored in your fat cells.


Anaerobic exercise

is short-lasting, high-intensity activity, where your body's demand for oxygen exceeds the oxygen supply available. Anaerobic exercise relies on energy sources that are stored in the muscles


Aerobic exercise

provides cardiovascular conditioning. The term aerobic actually means "with oxygen," which means that breathing controls the amount of oxygen that can make it to the muscles to help them burn fuel and move.


Isokinetic exercise

Exercise performed using a specialized apparatus that provides variable resistance to a movement, so that no matter how much effort is exerted, the movement takes place at a constant speed.


Isometric exercise

or isometrics are a type of strength training in which the joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction


Isotonic exercise

when a contracting muscle shortens against a constant load, as when lifting a weight. Isotonic exercise is one method of muscular exercise.


Muscle atrophy

is the wasting or loss of muscle tissue.


Muscle hypertrophy

involves an increase in size of skeletal muscle through a growth in size of its component cells.


Body dysmorphic disorder

disorder is a type of chronic mental illness in which you can't stop thinking about a flaw in your appearance — a flaw that is either minor or imagined. But to you, your appearance seems so shameful that you don't want to be seen by anyone.


Anorexia nervosa

self-starvation originating from a fear of becoming overweight.


Bulimia nervosa

bingeing on food and then purging it as a way to control body weight.


Excessive eating disorder

Binge-eating disorder is a serious eating disorder in which you frequently consume unusually large amounts of food and feel unable to stop eating.



is the absence of menstruation — one or more missed menstrual periods. Women who have missed at least three menstrual periods in a row have amenorrhea


Body composition

includes, bone, organs, muscle, and other tissue.


Body mass index

(BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. A high BMI can be an indicator of high body fatness.


Bioelectrical impedance

Bioelectrical impedance measures the resistance of body tissues to the flow of a small, harmless electrical signal. Current flows more easily through the parts of the body that are composed mostly of water (blood, urine and muscle) than it does through bone, fat or air. Bioelectrical impedance measures the strength and speed of the electrical signal sent through the body (impedance measure). It then uses this measurement and information such as height, weight and gender to predict how much body fat a person has.


Skinfold caliper testin

skinfold estimation methods are based on a skinfold test, also known as a pinch test, whereby a pinch of skin is precisely measured by calipers at several standardized points on the body to determine the subcutaneous fat layer thickness.


Hydrostatic weighing

Underwater weighing: A method for determining the lean body mass. This method weighs a person underwater and then calculates the lean body mass (muscle) and body fat. This method is one of the more accurate ones. However, it is generally done in special research facilities, and the equipment is costly.


Cardiovascular system

Relating to the circulatory system, which comprises the heart and blood vessels and carries nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes from them.


Antagonist muscle

The antagonist muscle opposes the agonist muscle during an exercise. For example, during the lifting phase of a biceps curl, the triceps muscles lengthen as the biceps contract, making the biceps the agonist and the triceps the antagonist.


Agonist muscle

The term agonist refers to the muscle that is primarily responsible for a specific joint motion, or the muscle that is directly involved in a contraction. For example, during the lifting phase of a biceps curl, the agonists are the bicep muscles.


Fast twitch muscle fiber

fast-twitch muscles fatigue faster but are used in powerful bursts of movements like sprinting.


Slow twitch muscle fiber

help enable long-endurance feats such as distance running.



A process of progressive thickening and hardening of the walls of medium-sized and large arteries as a result of fat deposits on their inner lining. Risk factors for atherosclerosis include high levels of "bad" cholesterol, high blood pressure (hypertension), smoking, diabetes and a genetic family history of atherosclerotic disease.


Diastolic blood pressure

or the bottom number indicates the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests between beats. A normal diastolic blood pressure number is less than 80. A diastolic blood pressure between 80 and 89 indicates prehypertension. A diastolic blood pressure number of 90 or higher is considered to be hypertension or high blood pressure.


Systolic blood pressure

When your heart beats, it contracts and pushes blood through the arteries to the rest of the body. This force creates pressure on the arteries. This is called systolic blood pressure. A normal systolic blood pressure is below 120. A systolic blood pressure of 120 to 139 means you have prehypertension, or borderline high blood pressure.



or high blood pressure is a common condition in which the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.



any one of various substances found in certain foods (such as bread, rice, and potatoes) that provide your body with heat and energy and are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.



are a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others.


Saturated fat

From a chemical standpoint, saturated fats are simply fat molecules that have no double bonds between carbon molecules because they are saturated with hydrogen molecules. Saturated fats are typically solid at room temperature.


Poly and mono unsaturated fats

Oils that contain monounsaturated fats are typically liquid at room temperature but start to turn solid when chilled. Olive oil is an example of a type of oil that contains monounsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated fat is mainly in vegetable oils such as corn, safflower, sunflower and soybean oils. It's usually liquid at room temperature. It is also found in seeds and fish. Better for your arteries and heart.


Trans-fatty acids

Artificial trans fats (or trans fatty acids) are created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid. The primary dietary source for trans fats in processed food is “partially hydrogenated oils." Look for them on the ingredient list on food packages.



are the building blocks of life. Every cell in the human body contains protein. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new ones. Protein is also important for growth and development in children, teens, and pregnant women. Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. Amino acids are found in animal sources such as meats, milk, fish, and eggs. They are also found in plant sources such as soy, beans, legumes, nut butters, and some grains (such as wheat germ and quinoa). You do not need to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet.


Dietary fiber

or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants. It has two main components: Soluble fiber, which dissolves in water, is readily fermented in the colon into gases and physiologically active byproducts, and can be prebiotic and viscous.


Calorie (kilocalorie)

is approximately the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. It can also be considered a measure of the energy in the food we eat, or the amount of energy we expend while living, moving, and exercising, etc.



is the process by which your body converts what you eat and drink into energy. During this complex biochemical process, calories in food and beverages are combined with oxygen to release the energy your body needs to function.


Basal metabolism

the amount of energy (calories) your body burns while you are resting.



are components in foods that an organism uses to survive and grow. Macronutrients provide the bulk energy an organism's metabolic system needs to function while micronutrients provide the necessary cofactors for metabolism to be carried out.



Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. There are 13 vitamins your body needs. They are: B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate)Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, and C.



Like vitamins, minerals are substances found in food that your body needs for growth and health. There are two kinds of minerals: macro minerals and trace minerals. Macro minerals are minerals your body needs in larger amounts. They include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Your body needs just small amounts of trace minerals. These include iron, copper, iodine, zinc, fluoride, and selenium.



Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle —Bone is living tissue that is constantly being broken down and replaced. Osteoporosis occurs when the creation of new bone doesn't keep up with the removal of old bone.



are among the brain chemicals known as neurotransmitters, which function to transmit electrical signals within the nervous system. Stress and pain are the two most common factors leading to the release of endorphins. Endorphins interact with the opiate receptors in the brain to reduce our perception of pain and act similarly to drugs such as morphine and codeine.



a person who does not eat meat, and sometimes other animal products, especially for moral, religious, or health reasons.



a person who does not eat or use animal products



a person that gets little or no physical activity.



the condition of having an abnormally low body temperature, typically one that is dangerously low.



the condition of having a body temperature greatly above normal.



a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates.



The body breaks down most carbohydrates from the foods we eat and converts them to a type of sugar called glucose. Glucose is the main source of fuel for our cells.


Lactic acid

a colorless syrupy organic acid formed in sour milk and produced in the muscle tissues during strenuous exercise.