What is maximum zero fuel weight?
The max weight the aircraft can be loaded neglecting the weight of fuel. This can be a limiting factor in larger airplanes associated with bending stress on the wings.
Weight and balance terms for:
- C of G
- Arm - Fuselage station
- C of G - Mean aerodynamic chord
Define fuselage station.
Same as "arm" and is the distance from the reference datum usually measured in inches.
Define Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC).
Average distance from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing. CofG is usually expressed in a % of MAC
Weight and Balance Formula
Weight Shift Formula
Weight addition formula
VB - Max gust intensity speed
The highest speed at which an aircraft can encounter a gust of 66.66 feet per second and not stall or suffer structural damage.
VMCG - Min control speed on the ground
VMCA - Min control speed in the air
Min calibrated airspeed (CAS) at which it's possible to maintain directional control if the critical engine fails.
Max brake energy speed
The max speed at which it's possible to stop the aircraft using wheel braking only.
Takeoff decision speed
At this speed, it's possible to both stop or continue the takeoff with the accelerate-stop distance considered.
V1 must be:
- Less or equal to VR
- Equal or higher than VMCG
- Less or equal to VMBE
Takeoff safety speed
The speed required to maintain the published engine inop climb gradient.
- Must be at least 20% greater than the Vso
- At least 10% greater than min control speed
- Aircraft will still accelerate with 1 engine inop
Landing reference speed
Speed required at 50' to meet the published landing distance
Not less than 1.3 x Vso
Takeoff Distance Available (TODA) = ?
TODA = TORA + CLEARWAY
- TODA - Takeoff Distance Available
- TORA - Takeoff Runway Available
Accelerate Stop Distance Available = ?
ASDA = TORA + STOPWAY
- TORA - Takeoff Runway Available
- ASDA - Accelerate Stop Distance
Takeoff Decision Speed (V1) will increase with the following 5 items
- Increased weight
- Increased density Alt.
- Upslope runway
- Increased runway length
Takeoff Decision Speed (V1) will decrease with the following 5 items
- Decreased weight
- Decreased density Alt.
- Downslope runway
- Decreased runway length
Review stop distances
Maneuvering speed is...
the highest speed the aircraft can be stalled without causing structural damage.
Service ceiling is...
the density altitude at which the rate of climb is reduced to 100fpm
Above 20,000' TAS increases by ___% per 1000' is a constant indicated airspeed is maintained.
What does a two-bar VASI look like when flying the correct approach slope?
Red over white (you're alright)
What is the max length of clearway which can be used towards available takeoff distance?
V1 will ___ with an increased runway slope and ___ with an increased density altitude.
What is the correct response for increased performance wind shear on approach?
Reduce power, pitch down to regain glideslope.
What is the correct response for decreased performance wind shear on approach?
Max power, pitch up
What is balanced field length?
- the shortest runway that meets both accelerate-stop and accelerate-go requirements
- when accelerate-go = accelerate-stop
- If used will provide the highest allowable takeoff weight for a given runway.
Know the two hydroplaning formulas
How does headwind effect:
- takeoff distance
- accelerate-stop distance
- accelerate-go distance
it will decrease all three
In a balanced departure, accelerate stop distance required = ?
accelerate stop distance required = accelerate go distance required.
What is the main difference between Type 1 and Type 2 de-icing fluid?
Type 2 is higher viscocity than Type 1
What's Vsi and V3?
- Vsi = stall speed or min steady flight speed in a specific configuration
- V3 = flap retraction speed.