Fluid Across Pulmonary Capillaries & Destruction of Alveoli Flashcards Preview

Jason's Respiratory Block > Fluid Across Pulmonary Capillaries & Destruction of Alveoli > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fluid Across Pulmonary Capillaries & Destruction of Alveoli Deck (34):
1

What is PO2 at sea level?

160 mmHg

2

What is PO2 at 18 000 feet?

80 mmHg

3

How is pulmonary circulation re: pressure and resistance?

Low pressure
Low resistance

4

What is mean Pulmonary artery pressure? PAP

15 mmHg

5

What is mean Capillary pressure?

8-12 mmHg

6

What is the right ventricular out put at rest? at max?

5-20L/min same as left ventricle

7

Does pulmonary artery pressure rise with exercise? Why?

Nope. Due to dilation/recruitment of pulmonary vessels

8

When you lie down, blood drains from your legs to this reservoir?

Pulmonary Circulation

9

What does pulmonary systolic BP do on inspiration?

decreases

10

What happens to pulmonary CO and venous return on inspiration?

both decrease

11

How do you get increased leakage of fluid across pulmonary capillaries?

increased pulmonary artery pressure

12

What are crepitations?

crackles

13

Why do the lungs 'crackle'?

air bubbles travelling through fluid in alveoli

14

What are Kerley B lines?

dilated lymphatics in lung on CXR cause they are trying to drain at an increased rate

15

pH = 7.26
PaO2 = 45mmHg
PaCo2 = 28mmHg
Na+ = 138mmol/l
K+ = 5mmol/l
Cl-=100mmol/l
HCO3-=15 mmol/l

Metabolic acidosis

16

How do you get fluid out of capillaries in pulmonary oedema?

increased pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure

17

3 factors that determine fluid movement across pulmonary capillaries:

hydrostatic pressure in and out cap
oncotic pressure in and out
permeability of capillary

18

What is Pc and Pi
Oc and Oi

Pc: hydrostatic pressure outside capillary
Pi: hydrostatic pressure inside capillary
Oc: Oncotic Pressure outside capillary
Oi: Oncotic Pressure inside capillary

19

What is the usual Pc/Pi?

Pc>Pi

20

What is the usual Oc/Oi?

Oc>Oi

21

When a patient all of a sudden gets anxious what does that mean?

Be worried, shit is about to get real.

22

What is type 1 respiratory failure?

hypoxia without hypercapnia, and indeed the PaCO2 may be normal or low due to V/Q mismatch

23

What does ARDS cause in terms of lungs?

stiff lungs, increase elastic work
Small and stiff lungs

24

What is the normal lymphatic flow in lungs?

20ml/hour

25

4 mechanical changes in pulmonary oedema

decrease lung compliance
decrease lung volume
increase airway resistance
increase work of breathing

26

What happens to gas exchange in pulmonary oedema?

hypoxaemia due to shunting

27

What is a key fature on CXR for non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema?

normal heart size

28

Arterial blood gases in pulmonary oedema?

low PaO2
low PaCO2
increased pH
type 1 resp failure

29

Arterial blood gases in severe pulmonary oedema?

low PaO2
High PaCO2
low pH
Type 2 respiratory failure

30

Changes in pulmonary circulation during pulmonary oedema?

increase pulmonary vascular resistance

31

T/F Alveolar epithelium likes water, ions etc.?

False, it actively pumps water from alveoli into interstitial spaces

32

Does interstitial oedema cause functional effects?

Not really, it's alveolar oedema that will mess up your day

33

2 common causes of pulmonary oedema?

increased capillary hydrostatic pressure (L ventricular dysfunction, mitral stenosis, fluid overload, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease)
increased capillary permeability (toxins, spesis, trauma)

34

2 less common causes/exacerbations of pulmonary oedema?

decreased colloid osmotic pressure
decreased lymphatic drainage