Flashcards in Fluid Across Pulmonary Capillaries & Destruction of Alveoli Deck (34):
What is PO2 at sea level?
What is PO2 at 18 000 feet?
How is pulmonary circulation re: pressure and resistance?
What is mean Pulmonary artery pressure? PAP
What is mean Capillary pressure?
What is the right ventricular out put at rest? at max?
5-20L/min same as left ventricle
Does pulmonary artery pressure rise with exercise? Why?
Nope. Due to dilation/recruitment of pulmonary vessels
When you lie down, blood drains from your legs to this reservoir?
What does pulmonary systolic BP do on inspiration?
What happens to pulmonary CO and venous return on inspiration?
How do you get increased leakage of fluid across pulmonary capillaries?
increased pulmonary artery pressure
What are crepitations?
Why do the lungs 'crackle'?
air bubbles travelling through fluid in alveoli
What are Kerley B lines?
dilated lymphatics in lung on CXR cause they are trying to drain at an increased rate
pH = 7.26
PaO2 = 45mmHg
PaCo2 = 28mmHg
Na+ = 138mmol/l
K+ = 5mmol/l
How do you get fluid out of capillaries in pulmonary oedema?
increased pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure
3 factors that determine fluid movement across pulmonary capillaries:
hydrostatic pressure in and out cap
oncotic pressure in and out
permeability of capillary
What is Pc and Pi
Oc and Oi
Pc: hydrostatic pressure outside capillary
Pi: hydrostatic pressure inside capillary
Oc: Oncotic Pressure outside capillary
Oi: Oncotic Pressure inside capillary
What is the usual Pc/Pi?
What is the usual Oc/Oi?
When a patient all of a sudden gets anxious what does that mean?
Be worried, shit is about to get real.
What is type 1 respiratory failure?
hypoxia without hypercapnia, and indeed the PaCO2 may be normal or low due to V/Q mismatch
What does ARDS cause in terms of lungs?
stiff lungs, increase elastic work
Small and stiff lungs
What is the normal lymphatic flow in lungs?
4 mechanical changes in pulmonary oedema
decrease lung compliance
decrease lung volume
increase airway resistance
increase work of breathing
What happens to gas exchange in pulmonary oedema?
hypoxaemia due to shunting
What is a key fature on CXR for non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema?
normal heart size
Arterial blood gases in pulmonary oedema?
type 1 resp failure
Arterial blood gases in severe pulmonary oedema?
Type 2 respiratory failure
Changes in pulmonary circulation during pulmonary oedema?
increase pulmonary vascular resistance
T/F Alveolar epithelium likes water, ions etc.?
False, it actively pumps water from alveoli into interstitial spaces
Does interstitial oedema cause functional effects?
Not really, it's alveolar oedema that will mess up your day
2 common causes of pulmonary oedema?
increased capillary hydrostatic pressure (L ventricular dysfunction, mitral stenosis, fluid overload, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease)
increased capillary permeability (toxins, spesis, trauma)