fluid and electrolytes- potassium balance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in fluid and electrolytes- potassium balance Deck (16):
1

where is >90% of the body's stores of K+

intracellular, only 2.5 extracellular

2

what secretes 90-95% of the K+

kidneys. rest is from GI loss

3

what stimulates the movement of K+ from ECF to ICF

insulin

4

what promotes K+ excretion in to urine and Na+ reabsorption

aldosterone

5

what condition promotes movement of K+ from ICF to ECF and what does this result in

metabolic acidosis. hyperkalaemia

6

signs hypokalaemia

often asymptomatic, neuromuscular, cardiac, renal, metabolic alkalosis

7

what are the neuromuscular signs hypokalaemia

muscle weakness, cramps, paralysis, constipation, paralytic ileus

8

what are the cardiac signs of hypokalaemia

ECG changes, arrhythmias, potentiates digoxin toxicity

9

what are the renal signs of hypokalaemia

polyuria and polydipsia

10

what are the ECG changes in hypokalaemia

flat T waves, ST wave depression, prolonged QT interval and prominent U waves

11

what are the causes of hypokalaemia mainly split up into

decreased dietary intake, increased, excretion and transcellular shift

12

what are the causes of transcellular shift (hypo)

alkalosis, insulin, B agonists (salbutamol), refeeding syndrome, hypokalaemic periodic paralysis

13

what are the causes of increased secretion (hypo)

renal loss and extra renal loss

14

what are the causes for renal loss in hypo

diuretics, excess diuresis after AKI, nephrotoxic drugs (gentamicin), mineralocorticoid excess- Conn, Cushings renal tubular acidosis

15

what are the causes for extra renal loss in hypo

diarrhoea and vomiting, ileostomy

16

what are the investigations in hypo

U+E, Mg, Hco3-. ABG, urinary K+