Flashcards in Fluid/Electrolyte/Acid-Base Balance Deck (37):
Normal Values: Glucose
70-110 mg/dL (fasting); >200 mg/dL (random)
Normal Values: Potassium (K)
Normal Values: Magnesium (Mg)
Normal Values: Sodium (Na)
Normal Values: Calcium (Ca)
Normal Values: Chloride (Cl)
Normal Values: Phosphorus (Pi)
What is the normal infusion rate for potassium?
5-10 mEq/hr; maximum 20 mEq/hr
Normal Values: Serum Osmolarity
Normal Values: Creatinine (Cr)
0.5-1.1 mg/dL (females); 0.6-1.2 mg/dL (males)
Intracellular fluid: fluid within cells
Extracellular fluid: fluid outside cells, made up of intravascular fluid (liquid portion of blood), interstitial fluid (fluid between cells and outside of blood vessels) and transcellular fluid (fluid of the CNS)
Which electrolytes have higher concentrations in ICF?
K+, Mg+, Pi
Which electrolytes have higher concentrations in ECF?
Na+, Cl-, HCO3-
Define osmotic pressure.
Regulates movement of water and electrolytes from one compartment to another; inward-pulling force caused by particles in the fluid
Define hydrostatic pressure.
Regulates movement of water from one compartment to another; outward-pressing force against a surface
Define active transport.
Movement of ions against osmotic pressure (ex: sodium potassium pump); requires ATP
Movement of electrolytes or other particles from an area of higher to lower concentration
Movement of water from an area of higher to lower concentration
Which organ produces angiotensinogen?
Which organ releases aldosterone? What does aldosterone do?
Adrenal cortex; causes reabsorption of sodium and water
Normal Values: Fluid Intake
2200-2700 mL/day (total); 1100-1400 mL/day (liquids)
What is the best indicator of fluid loss or gain?
Weight; only 0.5 lb/day can be attributed to metabolism; 1 lb = 500 mL (1 kg = about 1 L)
Define sensible loss.
Fluid loss that can be seen, felt and measured (ex: urine, sweat)
Define insensible loss.
Fluid loss that you cannot see (ex: through skin, lungs, stool)
Which organ excretes carbonic acid? In which form?
Lungs; in the form of CO2 + H2O
Which organ excretes metabolic acids?
Normal Values: CO2
Normal Values: HCO3-
22-26 mEq/L (arterial); 24-30 mEq/L (venous)
Normal Values: pH
Normal Values: PaCO2
35-45 mm Hg
Normal Values: PaO2
80-100 mm Hg
Normal Values: O2 sat
Normal Values: Urine Output
Which organ releases ADH? What does ADH do?
Posterior pituitary; causes renal cells to reabsorb water
Which organ releases ANP? What does ANP do?
The heart; inhibits ADH by increasing sodium and water loss in urine