Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 2 Flashcards Preview

Adult 1 Exam 1 > Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 2 Deck (44):
1

pH -

7.35 - 7.45; negative logarithm of the free H+ concentration, a mesure of how much acid or alkaline the blood is; below 7.35 acidic, about 7.45 alkaline

2

PaCO2 -

35 - 45 mm Hg; partial pressure of CO2, a measure of how well the lungs are excreting CO2, produced by cells; increased PaCO2 indicates CO2 accumlation in blood caused by hypoventilation; decreased PaCO2 indicates excessive CO2 excretions through hyperventiolation

3

HCO3- (bicarbonate)

22-26 mEq/L; concentration of teh basek, measure of how well the kidneys are excreting metabolic acids; increased levels indicates that blood has too few metabolic acids, decrease blood has too many metabolic acids

4

Pa02

80 - 100 mm Hg; partial pressure of oxygen, measure of how well gas exchange is occurring in the alveoli of the lungs, low values indicate poor oxygenation of the blood

5

SaO2

oxygen saturation; percentage of hemoglobin that is carrying as much oxygen as possible

6

base excess

-2 to +2 mmol/L; observed buffering capacity minus the normal buffering capacity, a measure of how well the blood buffers are managing metabolic acid; below - 2 metabolic acids; about +2 excessive bicarb

7

Respiratory acidosis lab findings

pH less than 7.35, PaCO2 greater than 45 mmHg, HCO3- lvel normal if uncompensated or greater than 36 mEq/L for compensated

8

Respiratory acidosis signs and symptoms

headache, light-headedness, decreased level of consciousness (confusion, lethargy, coma), cardiac dysrhythmia, warm and flushed skin, muscular twitching

9

Respiratory alkalosis lab findings

ph greater than 7.45; PaCO2 less than 35; HCO3- level normal if short lived or uncompensated or less than 22 mEq/L; K+ level may be decreased; ionized Ca2+ level may be decreased

10

Respiratory alkalosis signs and symptoms

increased rate and depth of respirations (hyperventilation), light-headedness, numbness and tingling of extremities and circumoral region (paresthesia), excitement and confusion possibly followed by decreased level of consciousness, cardiac dysrhymthias

11

Metabolic acidosis Metabolic acidosis lab findings

ph less than 7.35; PaCO2 normal if uncompensated or less than 35 compensated; HCO3- level less than 22; Anion gap normal or high depending on cause; K+ level may be elevated depending on cause

12

Metabolic acidosis signs and symptoms

decreased level of consciousness, abdominal pain, cardiac dysrhythmias, increased rate and depth of respirations (compensatory hyperventilation

13

Metabolic alkalosis lab findings

ph greater than 7.45; PaCO2 normal if uncompensated or greater than 45 compensated; HCO3- greater than 26; K+ often decreased; ionized Ca2+ level may be decreased

14

Metabolic alkalosis signs and symptoms

light headedness, numbness and tingling of fingers, toes, and circumoral region (parethesis): possible excitement and confusion followed by decreased level of consciousness, cardiac dysrhythmias (may be caused by hypokalemia)

15

Age - Explain how the following can affect fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balances.

very young: ECV deficit, osmolality imbalances, clinical dehydration; Very Old: ECV excesss or deficit, osmolaritity imblances

16

Acute Illness - Explain how the following can affect fluid, electrolyte,
and acid-base balances.

respiratory disease, burns, trams, GI alterations, and acute oliguric renal disease


17

Recent Surgery - Explain how the following can affect fluid, electrolyte,
and acid-base balances.

causes a physiological stress response which increases with extensive surgery and blood loss

18

Burns - Explain how the following can affect fluid, electrolyte,
and acid-base balances.

place pts at high risk for ECV deficit from numerous mechanisms, including plasma to interstitial fluid shift and increased evaporative and exudate output

19

Cancer - Explain how the following can affect fluid, electrolyte,
and acid-base balances.

depends on type, progession, and treatment; also have imalances because of side effects

20

Renal Disorders - Explain how the following can affect fluid, electrolyte,
and acid-base balances.

can lead to oliguria

21

GI disturbances - Explain how the following can affect fluid, electrolyte,
and acid-base balances.

increase output of fluid causes stress response which increases with extensive surgery and blood loss

22

Environmental Factors - Explain how the following can affect fluid, electrolyte,
and acid-base balances.

hot environments increase fluid output through sweating

23

Diet - Explain how the following can affect fluid, electrolyte,
and acid-base balances.

asses intake of fluids, salts, foods high in potassium, calcium, and magnesium

24

Lifestyle - Explain how the following can affect fluid, electrolyte,
and acid-base balances.

chronic alcohol abuse cause hypomagnesemia because it increases renal magnesium excretion

25

Loss of 2.2 pounds or more in 24 hours

ECV deficit

26

Orthostatic hypotension

ECV deficit

27

Bounding pulse rate

ECV excess

28

Full or distended neck veins

ECV excess

29

Lung sounds: crackles or rhonchi

ECV excess

30

Dark yellow urine

ECV deficit

31

Dependent edema in ankles

ECV excess

32

Dry mucus membranes

ECV deficit

33

Thirst present

Hypernatremia, severe ECV deficit

34

Restlessness and mild confusion

Severe ECV deficit

35

Decreased level of consciousness

Hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypercalcemia, acid-base imbalances

36

Irregular pulse and EKG changes

K+, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, and/or acid base imbalances

37

Increased rate and depth of respirations

Metabolic alkalosis; respiratory acidosis

38

Muscle weakness

Hypokalemia, hyperkalemia

39

Decreased deep tendon reflexes

Hypercalcemi, hypermagnesmia

40

Hyperactive reflexes, muscle twitching and cramps

Hypooclacemia, hypomagnesemia

41

Tremors

Hypomagnesium

42

Abdominal distention

hypokalemia

43

Decreased bowel sounds

Hypokalemia

44

Constipation

Hypokalemia, hypercalcemia