Foetal Medicine Flashcards Preview

Differential diagnosis > Foetal Medicine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Foetal Medicine Deck (25):
1

Foetal nuchal translucency

1. Trisomy 21
2. Turner Syndrome
3. Trisomy 18
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Trisomy 13

2

A foetal sacral mass

1. Sacrococcygeal teratoma
2. Myelomeningocele and variants
3. Rhabdomyosarcoma
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Duplication cyst

3

A foetal posterior fossa malformation

1. Chiari malformation
2. Dandy-Walker malformation
3. Joubert syndrome
Additional diagnostic considerations:

4

A foetal hyperechoic thoracic mass

1. Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation
2. Sequestration
3. Congenital lobar emphysema
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

5

Twin development-chorionicity

1. Dichorionic/diamnionic twin pregnancy
2. Monochorionic/diamnionic twin pregnancy
3. Monochorionic/monoamnionic twin pregnancy
Additional diagnostic considerations:

6

Asymmetric foetal size

1. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome
2. Foetal demise
3. Normal variation
Additional diagnostic considerations:

7

An enlarged foetal bladder (megacystitis)

1. Posterior urethral valves
2. Prune-belly syndrome
3. Megacystitis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Marked vesicoureteral reflux

8

Umbilical cord vascular abnormality

1. 2 vessel cord
2. Cord haematoma
3. Cord haemangioma
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Wharton jelly cyst
2. Umbilical cord varix

9

Foetal "double bubble" sign

1. Congenital duodenal obstruction (duodenal atresia/stenosis)
2. Annular pancreas
3. Intestinal malrotation with volvulus
Additional diagnostic considerations:

10

A hyperechoic intracardiac focus in a foetus

1. Echogenic intracardiac focus/papillary muscle calcification
2. Rhabdomyoma
3. Fibroma
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Teratoma
2. Haemangioma

11

CNS ventriculomegaly in a foetus

1. Ventriculomegaly
2. Congenital aquductal stenosis
2. Arnold-Chiari malformation
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Agenesis of the corpus callosum
2. Dandy-Walker malformation
3. Holoprosencephaly

12

A foetal cardiac outflow anomaly

1. Tetralogy of Fallot
2. Transposition of the great arteries
3. Truncus arteriosus
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Double outlet right ventricle
2. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

13

A cystic posterior neck mass in a foetus

1. Cystic hygroma
2. Occipital encephalocele/cervical myelomeningocele
3. Cystic teratoma
Additional diagnostic considerations:

14

Foetal enlarged hyperechoic kidneys

1. Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease
2. Trisomy 13
3. Meckel-Gruber syndrome
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (rare)

15

Oligohydramnios

1. Bilateral renal failure/outlet obstruction
2. Premature rupture of membranes
3. Intrauterine growth restriction
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Foetal demise

16

Polyhydranios

1. Foetal gastrointestinal anomalies
2. Foetal CNS anomalies
3. Maternal diabetes
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Idiopathic polyhydramnios
2. Foetal hydrops

17

Placental location abnormality

1. Placenta previa
2. Placenta accrete/increta/percreta
3. Marginal insertion of the cord
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Velamentous insertion of the cord

18

A foetal adbominal wall defect

1. Omphalocele
2. Gastroschisis
3. Limb-body wall complex
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Pentalogy of Cantrell
2. Bladder/cloacal exstrophy

19

A foetal cranial/calvarial defect

1. Anencephaly
2. Acrania
3. Amniotic band syndrome
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Encephalocele/myelomeningocele

20

A foetal diaphragm abnormality

1. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
2. Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation
3. Sequestration
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Diaphragmatic eventration

21

Foetal hydrops

1. Cardiovascular anomalies
2. Chromosomal abnormalities
3. Infection (viral & TORCH)
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Immune hydrops

22

Linear echoes within amniotic fluid

1. Amniotic band syndrome
2. Synechiae/amniotic shelf
3. Chorioamniotic separation
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Haemorrhage

23

A placental abnormality/mass

1. Subchorionic/retroplacental haematoma
2. Placental venous lakes
3. Succenturiate lobe
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Circumvallate placenta

24

A choroid plexus cyst

1. Normal variant/incidental finding
2. Trisomy 18
3. Trisomy 21 (debatable)
Additional diagnostic considerations:

25

A foetal ventricular septal defect

1. Ventricular septal defect
2. Endocardial cushion defect
3. Normal foramen ovale
Additional diagnostic considerations: