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Flashcards in Folsom Test 2 Deck (57):
1

What are hormones

Regulatory molecules from tissues

2

what are local hormones

They act on cells within the tissue that they are made from

3

Difference between paracrine and autocrine molecules

Paracrine has to be regulated manually where autocrine self-regulates ie. blood clotting, inflammation

4

What do target tissues contain

receptors for a specific hormone, can go to a few or lots of target tissues

5

Three examples of chemical hormones

Proteins, peptides, amino acids

6

what is Thyroxine and where does it come from

modified amino acid, from thyriod

7

What type of hormones are the pituitary hormones

peptides or glycoproteins - they act from plasma membrane

8

what is a steroid

Ring based lipid. Bind to protein to regulate DNA activity EX- adrenal cortical

9

TF: Hormone release is a constant process

False

10

Two Mechanisms for hormone control

Non-hormone substance - Blood Glucose levels
Neural control - neurons controlled by endocrine cells producing action potentials

11

What will nervous stimulation of the pancreas do

May increase or decrease output. Acetylcholine would increase secretion norepinephrine will decrease

12

TF: Can hormones control the output of another hormone

True

13

How is the endocrine secretion regulated

By positive or negative feedback

14

How are hormones transferred in blood

as free or bound molecules- bound are carried with plasma protein specific to hormone

15

which hormones have a shorter half life

water soluble ones such as proteins and glycoproteins

16

What type of hormones are receptor molecules

proteins or glycoproteins, levels can be constant or varied

17

Describe down and up regulating for receptor molecules

decreasing or increasing the number of receptors and sensitivity to hormones. found in female reproductive cycle

18

2 classes of hormone receptors

Membrane bound
Intracellular

19

What does the pituitary gland do

"hypophysis"
secretes lots of regulatory molecules
connected from hypothalamus by infundibulum

20

what are the two lobes of the pituitary

Anterior (adenohypophysis) and posterior (neurohypophysis)
regulated by hypothalamus

21

What does the anterior lobe of the pituitary do

Makes hormones -can increase and decrease amount
sends hormone to PP to be stored until needed

22

what does the posterior lobe of the pituitary do

houses hormones made by supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei - molecules stored are tropic hormones

23

what are the 4 major hormones made by the anterior pituitary

TSH - turns on thyroid gland
ACTH - turns on adrenal cortex
FSH - have folicules that secrete estrogen and progesterone
LH - lutenizing hormones - determines when ovaries ovulate
(all tropic hormones)

24

what is somatotropic

"growth hormone" does much of work before puperty
act on non hormones
particulary effects growth of long bones (epipyseal plates)

25

what are somatomedins

they are from the liver (maybe kidneys and muscles)
stimulates stem cell division
stimulates amino acid uptake

26

what does over secretion of somatotropic do to children and adults. deficiency in children

OS- giantism D- dwarfism- children
acromegaly- adults
Thickens the bones of hands and feet

27

What does prolactin do

Stimulates milk production

28

what does oxytocin do

released during childbirth and nursing
increases uterine contraction - triggers milk release -induces labor - can help stop postpartum bleeding

29

what does vassopressin do and what can high and low concentrations lead too

also known as antidiuretic hormone - regulates blood pressure - inhibits urine formation
high concentrations produce vasoconstriction of visceral blood vessels
low concentrations can lead to diabetes insipidis

30

what is the Pars intermedis of the pituitary

middle part - involved in color change is cold blooded animals

31

what two hormones does the thyroid produce and what is its shape

butterfly shaped - produces "thyroxine T4" or "T3"

32

what structures does the thyroid hormone NOT act on

spleen, testes, uterus and thyroid

33

what is the thyroid hormone used for

heat production in children, larger #'s of adrenergic receptors for blood vessels, regulates tissue development(skeletal growth and nervous and reproductive systems)

34

what is hyperthyroidism

to much thyroxine, produces irregular hear rate and blood pressure
Graves disease "auto immune"

35

what is hypothyroidism and what can it cause in adults and infants

to little thyroxine, low metabolism, puffy eyes
can result in goiter in adults
cretinism in infants

36

what is calcitonin

made in thyroid - polypeptide - lowers calcium ion concentration levels esspecially in children

37

Where is the parathyroid located

the two pairs are on the back of the thyroid - could also be in neck or chest

38

what does the parathyroid hormone do

regulates blood calcium levels - increases when Ca levels drops and vis versa for raising levels - acts on osteoclasts - enhances reabsorbtion of calcium in kidneys

39

What two parts are the adrenal gland divided into

Adrenal Cortex and Adrenal medulla

40

what is the adrenal medulla

secretes peptides - helpts to cope with stress

41

what is the adrenal cortex

produces more than 20 steriods
cholesterol must be a precursor
has three layers

42

what are the three layers of the adrenal cortex and what hormone do they secrete

Zona Glomerulosa - outer - secretes mineralocorticoids
Zona Fasciculata - middle - secretes glucocorticoids
Zona Recticularis - inner - secretes glucocorticoids and adrenal sex hormone

43

What is a mineralocorticoid

regulates electrolyte and salt balance. mostly Na and K

44

What is aldosterone

mineralocorticoid - major role in Na balance in adrenal cortex - stimulates kidneys to retain Na ions

45

What is the renin angiotensin system

from kidneys - helps regulate aldosterone

46

what hormones are released under severe stress

Mostly ACTH (anterior pituitary) some aldosterone - regulated by atrial natiuretic hormone

47

what is atrial natiuretic hormone

from heart for when blood pressure rises - can black aldosterone - lowers blood pressure by promoting blood and water loss through kidneys

48

what do glucocorticoids do

regulate body cell metabolism and helps resist stress

49

what are the two main glucocorticoids

Cortisol - promotes gluconeogenesis (glucose production)
Cortisone

50

what happens when glucocorticoid levels are too high

depress immune system, affects circulation and GI activity

51

what are the adrenal sex hormones

mostly androgens with some estrogen - contribute to onset of puberty

52

what does the pancreas do in the endocrine system

mostly digestive stuff, helps regulate blood sugar levels - creates insulin and glucagon

53

what are the islet cells of the pancreas

Beta cells produce insulin and are more numberous
alpha cells produce glucagon
also makes somatostatin

54

what hormones stimulate insulin release

epinepherine, growth hormone, thyroxine, glucacorticouds

55

what hormones do the gonads, ovaries, and testes produce

gonads- steriod
ovaries - estrogen and progesterone
testes - testosterone

56

what does the Pineal do

secretes melatonin - highest at night, lowest at noon - role in seasonal mating

57

what does the thymus secrete

thymosin and thymopoeitin - largest in children - disapears by old age - used to process lymphocytes