folsom test 2 part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in folsom test 2 part 2 Deck (43):
1

what are the major functions of blood

gas transport, moving nutrients and hormones, immunological stuff, temp regulation, pH regulation

2

where does blood come from

made of connective tissue, cells originate from red bone marrow, matrix is made of plasma

3

what is plasma

carries nutrient molecules and hormones - 91% H2O the rest is protein and iron

4

what is the most abundant protein in plasma

albumin at 58% important or osmoregulation (moves water from tissues to blood)

5

what are the other two proteins of plasma

globin- transport
fibrinogen - clot formation

6

what are blood cells made of

Erythrocytes - 95%
leukocytes and thrombocytes - 5%

7

what are the two types of leukocytes

granular - neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
agranular - monocytes, lymphocytes

8

what is the formation of blood cells called

hematopoeisis or hemapoeisis - mostly in red bone marrow

9

where do cells and platelets come from

stem cells

10

what become of each of the following
proerythroblasts
myeloblasts
lymphoblasts
monoblasts
megakaryoblasts

P- erythrocytes
My- granulocytes
L - lymphocytes
Mo- monocytes
Me- platelets

11

What are erythrocytes

Red blood cells - specialized for O2 transport - regulated by growth factors - biconcave disks with a lot of surface area for 98.5% gas exchange (rest done in plasma)

12

what does hemoglobin do

transports blood from lungs into tissues - rupture and release of it is called hemolysis -can also transport CO2 and nitric acid

13

what is transported in the plasma

CO2 - blood proteins - bicarbonate

14

how does bicarbonate form

when CO2 and H2o combine to make carbonic acid - dissociates to leave H and bicarbonate

15

why is bicarbonate important

has a major role in blood pH

16

what are the two types of hemoglobin

Embryonic - better at picking up O2
Fetal

17

what is the hormone that stimulates the formation of the erythrocyte

erythropoietin

18

how long does erythropoiesis (formation of) take and how long does an erythrocyte last

4-5 days
110-120 days

19

what detects damage in an erythrocyte

macrophage

20

what nutrients are required for red cell formation

Fe, B vitamins, folic and amino acids

21

What is the basic function of a leukocyte

defense against pathogens and removal of damaged cells

22

what is the only white blood cell for non- specific defenses

Lymphocyte (the rest are specific)

23

what is the most abundant white blood cell

neutrophils 50-70%

24

what do neutrophils do

first WBC to site of injury - attack and destroy bacteria

25

what hormones does a neutrophil release

prostaglandins - increase capillary permeability
leukotrienes -attracts other phagocytes

26

how are eosinophils characterized

bilobed nucleus - orange granuals - 2-4% of WBCs

27

what do eosinophils do

function against parasites fungi and protozoa - destroys by releasing nitric oxide -can also respond to allergens

28

what are basophils

least abundant, and smallest WBC - 1% - vasodialates and anticoagulant

29

what are monocytes

2-8% of WBC's - no nucleus - become macrophages

30

how are lymphocytes identified

large nucleus - little cytoplasm - more found lympatic tissue 20-30%

31

what are the three types of lymphocytes

T lymphocytes - attacks invading cells
B lymphocytes -antibody formers
NK cells - "natural kilers" destroy abnormal cells

32

what are platelets

bits of cells also called "thrombocytes" -play role in clotting and are destoryed by spleen if not used

33

what two hormones are used in platelets

actin
myosin
both used in muscle contraction

34

what hormone does platelets release in plug formation

thromboxane - formed from prostalandins

35

what antigens do the blood types have (A, B, AB, O)

A- anti B
B- anti A
O- anti A and B
AB - neither

36

What does RH +/- do

stimulates formation of antibodies in pregnancy

37

what is polycythemia

overabundance of erythrocytes (RBC) causes greater viscosity -can plug capillaries

38

what is anemia

decreased number of erythrocytes or decrease of hemoglobin

39

what is aplastic anemia

caused by chemicals or radiation - insufficient division from damage to stem cells

40

what is folate deficiency

in people with poor nutrition - folate is needed for DNA synthesis

41

what is pernicious anemia

inadequate b12

42

hemorrhagic anemia

from ulcers or excessive bleeding

43

what is hemolytic

excessive destruction rupture of spleen