FOOD AND DIGESTION Flashcards Preview

BIOLOGY > FOOD AND DIGESTION > Flashcards

Flashcards in FOOD AND DIGESTION Deck (37):
1

Carbohydrates

-pasta, rice, bread
-to give you energy

2

Protein

-meat, fish, egg
-growth + repair

3

Lipids (fats)

-butter, oily fish, oils
-release + store energy

4

Vitamin A

-liver, carrots, butter
-improve vision + keep skin healthy

5

Vitamin B

-wholemeal bread, liver, brown rice
-needed for chemical reactions (eg. respiration)

6

Vitamin C

-oranges, lemons, berries
-healthy mouth + gum
-prevent scurvy

7

Vitamin D

-eggs, butter, fish
-helps calcium absorption

8

Calcium

-milk, cheese, bread
-to make strong bones + teeth

9

Iron

-lentils, red meat, egg yolk
-to make haemoglobin (for healthy blood)

10

Water

-cucumber, water (most food)
-every bodily function relies on water

11

Dietary fibre

-wholemeal bread, fruit, brown rice
-aids movement of food through the gut

12

What is a balanced diet?

A balanced diet gives you all the essential nutrients you need in the right proportions.

13

Energy requirements vary with...

-activity levels
-age
-pregnancy

14

Mouth

-food broken into small pieces by teeth which increases surface area
-food mixes with saliva that contains amylase which digests starch

15

Oesophagus

-carries food to the stomach by waves of muscle contractions called PERISTALSIS

16

Stomach

-digests only protein using protease
-the stomach enzymes need acidic conditions so the stomach makes HCL.
-the acid kills bacteria
-thick, muscular walls churn the food to mix it with enzymes

17

Small intestine (duodenum)

-enzymes from the pancreas mix with the food
-produces proteASE to break down proteins into amino acids
-produces lipASE to break down lipids into fatty acids
-produces carbohydrASE to break down carbohydrates into starch

18

Small intestine (ileum)

-the walls of the ileum make enzymes: maltase, protease and lipase
-products of digestion (small, soluble food molecules) are absorbed across the walls of the ileum into the blood

19

Large intestine (colon)

-the colon absorbs water from the undigested food to produce faeces

20

Large intestine (rectum)

-the end of the colon
-faeces is compacted and pushed out of the anus by egestion

21

The digestion of Starch

to maltose
by amylase

22

The digestion of Maltose

to glucose
by maltase

23

The digestion of Proteins

to amino acids
by protease

24

The digestion of Lipids

to fatty acids
by glycerol + lipases

25

Bile is made in

the liver

26

Bile is stored in

the duodenum

27

Bile is needed to help

lipase digest lipids

28

Bile moves down the ................ into the ................

-bileduct
-duodenum

29

Bile is ................ so it ...................... the ........ coming from the stomach

-alkaline
-neutralises
-acid

30

Enzymes in the .......... .................. need neutral conditions. ........ from the stomach would ................ these enzymes

-small intestine
-acid
-denature

31

The Bile .................... fats which is when it ........

-emulsifies
-breaks them into smaller droplets with a greater total surface area.
-this speeds up digestion of lipids by lipase

32

The ileum is very long (roughly 5m in adults) which ...

-gives plenty of time for digested food to be absorbed

33

The ileum has villi. Each villus ...

-each villus is covered with cells which have even smaller villi called microvilli
-this increases surface area

34

Villi contains blood capillaries

-digested food passes into the blood to be taken into the liver then round the body
-absorb glucose, amino acids, vitamins, minerals +water

35

Villi contain lacteals,
What are lacteals part of?

-the lymphatic system
-fats are absorbed in the lacteals

36

villi have walls ...... cell(s) thick which means ...

-one
-digested food can easily cross the walls to reach the blood capillaries and lacteals
-short distance for diffusion

37

The ileum is .............. to ............ the products of ..................

-adapted
-absorb
-digestion