Flashcards in FOOD AND DIGESTION Deck (37):
-pasta, rice, bread
-to give you energy
-meat, fish, egg
-growth + repair
-butter, oily fish, oils
-release + store energy
-liver, carrots, butter
-improve vision + keep skin healthy
-wholemeal bread, liver, brown rice
-needed for chemical reactions (eg. respiration)
-oranges, lemons, berries
-healthy mouth + gum
-eggs, butter, fish
-helps calcium absorption
-milk, cheese, bread
-to make strong bones + teeth
-lentils, red meat, egg yolk
-to make haemoglobin (for healthy blood)
-cucumber, water (most food)
-every bodily function relies on water
-wholemeal bread, fruit, brown rice
-aids movement of food through the gut
What is a balanced diet?
A balanced diet gives you all the essential nutrients you need in the right proportions.
Energy requirements vary with...
-food broken into small pieces by teeth which increases surface area
-food mixes with saliva that contains amylase which digests starch
-carries food to the stomach by waves of muscle contractions called PERISTALSIS
-digests only protein using protease
-the stomach enzymes need acidic conditions so the stomach makes HCL.
-the acid kills bacteria
-thick, muscular walls churn the food to mix it with enzymes
Small intestine (duodenum)
-enzymes from the pancreas mix with the food
-produces proteASE to break down proteins into amino acids
-produces lipASE to break down lipids into fatty acids
-produces carbohydrASE to break down carbohydrates into starch
Small intestine (ileum)
-the walls of the ileum make enzymes: maltase, protease and lipase
-products of digestion (small, soluble food molecules) are absorbed across the walls of the ileum into the blood
Large intestine (colon)
-the colon absorbs water from the undigested food to produce faeces
Large intestine (rectum)
-the end of the colon
-faeces is compacted and pushed out of the anus by egestion
The digestion of Starch
The digestion of Maltose
The digestion of Proteins
to amino acids
The digestion of Lipids
to fatty acids
by glycerol + lipases
Bile is made in
Bile is stored in
Bile is needed to help
lipase digest lipids
Bile moves down the ................ into the ................
Bile is ................ so it ...................... the ........ coming from the stomach
Enzymes in the .......... .................. need neutral conditions. ........ from the stomach would ................ these enzymes
The Bile .................... fats which is when it ........
-breaks them into smaller droplets with a greater total surface area.
-this speeds up digestion of lipids by lipase
The ileum is very long (roughly 5m in adults) which ...
-gives plenty of time for digested food to be absorbed
The ileum has villi. Each villus ...
-each villus is covered with cells which have even smaller villi called microvilli
-this increases surface area
Villi contains blood capillaries
-digested food passes into the blood to be taken into the liver then round the body
-absorb glucose, amino acids, vitamins, minerals +water
Villi contain lacteals,
What are lacteals part of?
-the lymphatic system
-fats are absorbed in the lacteals
villi have walls ...... cell(s) thick which means ...
-digested food can easily cross the walls to reach the blood capillaries and lacteals
-short distance for diffusion