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Flashcards in Food and Drink Deck (26):

How many deaths are from a harmful use of alcohol?

- 3.3 million deaths each year globally
- 5.9% of all deaths
- 35% of the total deaths of 25-39 year olds


What are the consequences of alcohol?

- 5.1% of the global burden of disease and injury is attributable to alcohol
- Relationship between alcohol and physical, mental and behavioural disorders and injuries
- Social and economic consequences to individuals and society


How much alcohol does Scotland drink?

- Based on 2007 commercial sales, Scotland ranks as the eighth heaviest alcohol consumer in the world
- The majority of sales purchased at off-premises (off-sales) outlets.


Name a direct effect of alcohol?

Sclerosis of the liver


Name indirect effects of alcohol?

- Domestic abuse
- Road traffic accidents


What's the difference between on-sales and off-sales?

- It's about where you drink it
- Drinking on premises- bars, restaurants- on sales
- Drinking off premises- e.g. Convenience stores, supermarkets,- off sales


What's binge drinking?

- Consuming more than twice the guideline limits in a day


Who are the most and least likely groups to binge drink?

Most likely- Men under 45
Least likely- Men and women over 85


What's the trend between neighbourhood deprivation and binge drinking?

The more deprived the area you live in the more likely you are to binge drink
(Fone et al. 2013)


What is the link between status of employment and alcohol related death?

- As you move to a higher status occupation tour probability of dying from drinking related reasons decreases


What's the relationship between off-sales alcohol density and deprivation in Scotland?

- As the an area becomes more deprived there is more access to off sales
- same trend for tobacco
(Shortt et al, 2015)
- Same trend in New Zealand (Hay et al, 2008)


What factors make up access to alcohol?

- Distance to outlet
- Prices
- Advertising
- Cultural norms
(Young et al, 2013)


How does proximity to outlets link into drinking behaviours?

- Those living within 200m of an off sales outlet were twice as likely to drink frequently than those who live 800m away
(15 year olds in Glasgow)
- In Scotland a link between high odd sales outlet density and alcohol related mortality
(Young et al)
- Confirmed by research in Scotland


How much more likely is alcohol related death in areas with a high density of offsales outlets?

19% higher alcohol-related mortality in high density areas compared with low density areas.


What does the "Sainsbury's is my local..." paper say?

- There's been a shift from public to private consumption
- It's not just a city centre concern


What are Cumulative Impact Zones?

- CIZs are a way that local authorities can control new alcohol outlets being set up
- Local authorities with CIZs have seen a steeper fall in alcohol related hospital admissions


What does overweight or obesity mean?

Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health.
- Overweight is a BMI over 25
- Obese is BMI over 30


What are the health and economic impacts of obesity?

- Obesity is a major determinant of several chronic diseases- hypertension, type II diabetes, some cancers and some mental health problems- depression
- Burden on the NHS
- Burden on economy- days lost to illness and disability
- 1 in 5 cancer deaths are caused by obesity


What are the macro, meso and micro causes of obesity?

Macro- national food advertising regulation and urban design initiatives
- Meso - neighbourhood availability of healthy food, neighbourhood access to parks and green space
- Micro- food on the table, school based physical activity


What factors decide how obesenogenic an environment is?

- Proximity and price of local food outlets
- Availability of unhealthy food shops- the foodscape
- Walkability of the local environment
- Access to recreation and sports facilities, cycle paths and parks


How are fast food outlets racially patterned in the USA?

- the average distance to fast-food was more than three miles closer in neighbourhoods with the highest versus the lowest concentration of black residents
- This is especially true in more deprived neighbourhoods
(James et al, 2014)


How does fast food link to deprivation?

- Study in Norfolk
- The most deprived wards had the most takeaway food outlets
- This has increased over time
(Maguire et al, 2015)


What's the impact of having grocery stores or fast food outlets near schools?

- Encourages students to skip breakdast
- 25% increases in the risk of overweight among children with a low socioeconomic status (but not richer children)
(Virtaten et al, 2015)


How has obesity caused policy changes?

- No big changes
- Research suggests there should be something similar to Cumulative Impact Zones


How do more walkable areas impact health?

- walkable areas give the ability and motivation to do more physical activity
- improves physical and mental health
- Quality and safety of the streets in important


What is an issue with CIZ?

- Advantages big chains like Tesco over smaller companies because they can more easily show they're in the public interest