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National 5 Health And Food Technology Notes > Food For Health > Flashcards

Flashcards in Food For Health Deck (70):

What are macronutrients?

Macronutrients are the main nutrients needed by the body in relatively large amounts they include protein fats and carbohydrates


Give 3 functions of protein in the diet

The main function of protein in the body growth and repair of body cells maintenance of body cells

The secondary function of protein in the body is to provide energy


What does abbreviations HBV and LBV stand for

High biological value and low biological value


Describe the difference between HBV and LBV proteins and give two examples of each

HBV protein comes from animal sources The only vegetable sauce of HBV protein is soyabeans HBV protein contains all essential amino acid's LBV protein contains only a limited number of essential amino acid many LBV protein have to combine to make essential amino acid and proteins come from vegetable sources


Explain one affect on health of having too much protein in the diet

Can be converted to fat in the body and can lead to a Obesity if it is not used up as a secondary source of energy


What are two groups of carbohydrates

Sugary carbohydrates and starchy carbohydrates


What does the abbreviation is NSP and TCC stand for

TCC stands for total complex carbohydrates and NSP stands for non-starch polysaccharides


Which type of carbohydrate is better to consume and why

It is recommended that we get most of our energy from starch or total complex carbohydrates for several reasons such as good sources of other nutrients such as potatoes are a good source of vitamin C bread supplies protein calcium I and iron the bulk out the diet and make you feel fuller for longer they do not encourage dental carries to carry bacteria in the mouth do not like starches


Explain the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic sugars

Intrinsic sugars are natural sugars which are commonly found in fruit whilst extrinsic sugar free sugars are found in baked


Emma what are the functions of carbohydrates in the diet

The main functions of carbohydrates in the body are to supply energy for all activities and to supply water and so help to maintain a normal body temperature


What are the two types of Fat

Saturated and unsaturated


What are the functions of fat in the diet

Provide warmth throughout and sleep with layer under the skin, provide a concentrated source of energy, to provide the fat-soluble vitamins ADE and K, provide essential fatty acid, surrounding protect vital organs such as the kidneys


What does the abbreviation is LDL and HDL cholesterol stand for

HDL means high density Lipoprotein whilst LDL stands for low density Lipoprotein


What is the difference between the two types of cholesterol known as LDL and HDL

HDL Cholesteryl helps to fatty the cholesterol away from the arteries to the liver where it is broken down into bile

LDL protein is known as bad cholesterol this cholesterol tends to stick to the arteries leading to blood clot and blockages of the artery


What are trans-fatty acid's

Trans-fatty acids are hydrogenated fat are sometimes known as polyunsaturated fat are fat which have artificially been hardened by adding extra hydrogen


Explain trans-fatty acids effect on health

Trans-fatty acid can cause an increased risk of heart disease rheumatoid arthritis and are linked to some cancers


What are essential fatty acid and why should we include them in the diet

Essential fatty acid unnecessary fact that humans cannot make and they must be obtained throughout the diet the main cafe is a mega three this helps to reduce the risk of blood clot heart attacks and rheumatoid arthritis omega-3 is needed for brain development and babies and young children


What happens if there's not enough protein in the diet

Growth in children is slowed down captain wins will take longer to heal


What happens if not enough carbohydrates are consumed

The lack of energy leading to tiredness protein may be used as a source for energy instead of growth and repair


What can too much carbohydrate lead to

Can be converted to fat in the body and can lead to a obesity too much sugar can lead to dental caries or diabetes


What happens if there's not enough fat in the diet

The intake of essential fatty acid such as a mega three maybe did used fat-soluble vitamins may be reduced


What happens if too much fat are consumed in the diet

Can lead to a Obesity high blood pressure and coronary heart disease


Describe how fat may become rancid during storage

That's become rancid due to oxidation oxygen is absorbed by the fat molecules and react to produce an unpleasant flavour and colour oxidation is accelerated by light and any impurities in the flat


Give two examples of coagulation of protein in cooking

Protein coagulates our Sets when heat such as when an egg whites sets in a quiche
Heating the protein in the wheat known as gluten helps bread to hold its structure


State the changes that take place when a solid flat is heated and overheated

When are fat is heated it will melt and turn into a liquid
When a fat is overheated a blue haze will be given off and the fat will ignite


Explain the term dextrinistaion

Dextrin is formed in foods containing starch are subjected to dry heat that gives bread a brown colour


State two ways food preparation that cheese could be made easier to digest

Break down the surface such as grated cheese as this allows food to be easier digested before exposing it to the digestive system

Combining a starchy food with cheese will help absorb the fat making it easier to digest


What are the functions of vitamin a

Normal growth in children, keep mucous membranes healthy, maintenance of healthy skin, make a visual purple substance in the eye to assist in good vision particularly in dim light


What are the effects of health of to little vitamin a

Reduced vision in dim longer leading to night blindness, dry and infected skin and mucous membranes


When can to much vitamin a be harmful

During pregnancy too much vitamin a can be harmful to the developing foetus however the pregnant mother must get enough to prevent becoming deficient in vitamin a


Name plant and animal sources of vitamin a

Retinol- liver, eggs
Beta- carotene- tomatoes, carrots


Functions. Of vit d

Proper formation of bones and teeth, promote quicker healing of bone fractures, required for absorption of calcium and phosphorus


Food source vit d

Cod liver oil, egg yolk, liver, oily fish, fortified foods such as marg and breakfast cereals


Function of vitamin a

Help prevent certain cancers and heart disease, healthy skin


Sources of vitamin e

Eggs, nuts, seeds, cereal products, vegetable oil


Deficiencies of vitamin e

Very rare however in premature babies may be placed in a special baby care unit where they can receive vitamin e to reduce or prevent damage to the eyes


Not enough vitamin d

Poor growth and a risk of rickets in children where bones become soft and bend, osteomalacia ( adult to tickets) in elderly


Too much vitamin d

Very rare but can lead to deposits of calcium in the blood and heart


Functions of vitamin b complex

Help release energy from carbohydrates, normal growth in children, growth and normal function of the nervous system


Not enough vitamin b complex

Slow growth in children, anixiety, depression, irritability, tiredness as energy is not being released from carbohydrates


Function of B12

Makes red blood cells which carry oxygen around the body, keeps your nerves healthy


Function of folic acid

Helps prevent megaloblastic anaemia, helps fully develop the spinal cord and brain


Not enough vit b12

A type of anemia called pernicious anemia may develop, you will feel tired and listless as your body won't be able to make as many red blood cells as normal


Not enough folic acid

Megaloblastic anemia may develop, spina bifida may occur in unborn babies


Sources vit b complex

Meat, liver, kidney, white and wholemeal bread, fortified breakfast cereals


Sources vit b12

Cereals,fish, eggs, milk, cheese, meat, fortified breakfast cereals


Sources of folic acid

Oranges,bananas, grapefruit, peas, beans, lentils, fortified breakfast cereals, wholegrain cereals, green leafy veg, Brussels sprouts, broccoli


Function vit c

Make connective tissue bind body cells together, helps cuts and wounds heal quicker, help protect our immune system, build and maintain system, assists in absorption of iron to prevent anemia


Not enough vit c

Cuts and wound won't heal properly, anemia may develop, greater risk Of developing cancer and heart disease.


Effects anti oxidants have on health

Reduce risk of heart disease and cancer


What are antioxidants

Ward off free radicals which are produced as a natural result of the oxygen using processes in the body such as breathing and digestion


What is soluble fibre

Thought to slow down digestion and absorption of carbs to help control blood sugar levels useful for diabetics


What is insoluble fibre

Absorbs water and increases bulk to help the gut work properly


Functions of water

Lubricates joints and membranes, regulates body temperature through perspiration, helps excrete waste from body as it combines with NSP To prevent constipation, required for body fluids such as blood,sweat, urine


What can happen in a deficiencies of water

May become dehydrated which could result in confusion and lack of concentration, helps flush out toxins


Functions of NSP

Helps to remove toxic or harmful waste products from the body, helps prevent bowel disorders such as diverticulitis disease, constipation and bowel cancer, absorbs water to help bulk out faeces which helps it move through the body, gives a feeling of fullness to help prevent overeating and Obesity, may help to lower LDL cholesterol and so help reduce the risk of heart disease


To much salt

HBP, strokes and CHD


Not enough salt on

Is rare but can lead to muscle cramps especially after exercise


Function of salt

Essential for maintaining correct fluid balance in the body, required for correct muscle and nerve activity


Function of iron

Prevents anemia, haemoglobin helps to transport oxygen around the body to every cell to help reduce the feeling of tiredness, iron is a component of hamoglobin the substance that forms red blood cells


Too much iron

Can build up in the liver and become toxic


To little iron

Anemia, tiredness


Function of calcium

Combines with phosphorus to make calcium phosphate gives hardness to teeth and bones,helps blood clot after injury, helps prevent osteoporosis in later life, required for maintenance of bones and teeth, required for correct functioning of muscles and nerves


Not enough calcium

Blood loss as it does not clot well after injury, osteomalacia(adult tickets), osteoporosis( brittle bones) later life, if a bone is broken or damages then it may take longer to heal if calcium is lacking, low intake over a period of time may lead to poor development of bones( leading to rockets- soft bones) and teeth( leading to dental carries)


How to reduce loss of vit a

Store in fridge,cover foods or store in dark containers away from light


How to reduce loss of vit c

Serve immediately, cook for as short a time as possible, choose cooking method such as microwaving and story frying to reduce loss, use as little water as possible to prevent loss through leaching, add to boiling water to prevent loss through leaching


How to reduce loss of vit b complex when cooking

Use quick methods of cooking such as steaming, stir-frying mircrowaving and pressure cooking to preserve vit


Vit c storage

But as fresh as possible, avoid brushing or damage prior storage, store away from light


How to reduce loss of vit b complex preparation

But wholegrain bread or brown rice as this contains more bran


How to reduce loss of vit c when prep

Avoid soaking water, do not prepare too far in advance, use acids such as lemon juice to slow down the loss through oxidation water