Foot, Ankle, Lower Leg Flashcards Preview

Athletic Training > Foot, Ankle, Lower Leg > Flashcards

Flashcards in Foot, Ankle, Lower Leg Deck (47):
1

Abductor Hallucis:

1. Origin 

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Medial process of calcaneal tuberosity, flexor retinaculum, and plantar aponeurosis.

2. Medial side of proximal phalanx base of first digit

3. Medial Plantar Nerve (S2 and S#3)

4. Abducts and flexes

2

Flexor Digitorum Brevis:

1. Origin 

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Medical process of calcaneal tuberosity, plantar aponeurosis, and intermuscular septa

2. Both sides of middle phalanges of lateral four digits.

3. Medial Plantar Nerve (S2 and S3)

4. Flexes lateral four digits

3

Abductor Digiti Minimi:

1. Origin 

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Medial and lateral processes of calcaneal tuberosity, plantar aponeurosis, and intermuscular septa

2. Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of fifth digit

3. Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2 and S3)

4. Abducts and flexes fifth digit

4

Quadratus Plantae:

1. Origin 

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Medial surface and later margin of calcaneal plantar surface

2. Posterolateral margin of flexor digitorum longus tendon

3. Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2 and S3)

4. Assists flexor digitorum longus in flexing lateral four digits

5

Lumbricals:

1. Origin 

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Flexor digitorum longus tendon

2. Medial aspect of extensor expansion over lateral four digits

3. Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerves 

4. Flex proximal phalanges and extend middle and distal phalanges of lateral four digits

6

Flexor Hallucis Brevis:

1. Origin 

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Plantar surfaces of cuboid and lateral cuneiforms

2. Both sides of base of proximal phalanx of first digit

3. Medial Plantar Nerve (S2 and S3)

4. Flexes proximal phalanx of first digit

 

7

Adductor Hallucis:

1. Origin 

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Oblique head: bases of metatarsals 2-4; Transverse head: plantar ligaments of metatarsophalangeal joints

2. Tendons of both heads: lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of first digit

3. Deep Branch of Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2 and S3)

4. Adducts first digit; assists in maintaining transverse arch of foot

8

Flexor Digiti Minimi:

1. Origin 

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Base of fifth metatarsal

2. Base of proximal phalanx of fifth digit

3. Superficial Branch of Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2 and S3)

4. Flexes proximal phalanx of fifth digit

9

Plantar Interossei:

1. Origin 

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Bases and medial sides of metatarsals 3-5

2. Medial sides of bases of proximal phalanges of digits 3-5

3. Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2 and S3)

4. Adduct digits 2-4 and flex metatarsophalangeal joints

10

Dorsal Interossei:

1. Origin 

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Adjacent sides of metatarsals 1-5

2. First: Medial side of proximal phalanx of second digit; 2nd-4th: lateral sides of second to fourth digits

3. Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2 and S3)

4. Abduct digits 2-4 and flex metatarsophalangeal joints

11

Name the first layer of muscles in the sole of the foot.

1. Abductor Hallucis

2. Flexor Digitorum Brevis

3. Abductor Digiti Minimi

12

Name the second layer of muscles in the sole of the foot.

1. Quadratus Plantae

2. Lumbricals

13

Name the 3rd layers of muscles in the sole of the foot.

1. Flexor Hallucis Brevis

2. Adductor Hallucis

3. Flexor Digiti Minimi

14

Name the fourth layers of muscles in the sole of the foot. 

1. Plantar Interossei

2. Dorsal Interossei

15

Which muscles are innervated by the medial plantar nerve?

1. Abductor Hallucis

2. Flexor Digitorum Brevis

3. Medial Lumbrical

4. Flexor Hallucis Brevis

16

Which muscles are innervated by the lateral plantar nerve?

1. Abductor Digiti Minimi

2. Quadratus Plantae

3. Lateral 3 Lumbricals

4. Adductor Hallucis

5. Flexor Digiti Minimi

6. Plantar and Dorsal Interossei

17

Subtalar Joint:

1. Type

2. Articular Surface

3. Ligaments

4. Movements

1. Plane Synovial

2. Inferior surface of talar body with superior surface of calcaneus

3. Medial, lateral, and posterior talocalcaneal ligaments support capsule; interosseous talacalcaneal ligament binds bones

4. Inversion and eversion of foot

18

Talocalcanealnavicular Joint:

1. Type

2. Articular Surface

3. Ligaments

4. Movements

1. Synovial; talonavicular is ball and socket

2. Head of talus with calcaneus and navicular

3. Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament supports supports head of talus

4. Gliding and rotary movements

19

Calcaneocuboid Joint:

1. Type

2. Articular Surface

3. Ligaments

4. Movements

1. Plane synovial

2. Anterior end of calcaneus with posterior surface of cuboid

3. Dorsal calcaneocuboid ligament, plantar calcaneocuboid ligament, and long plantar ligament support fibrous capsule

4. Inversion and eversion

20

Cuneonavicular Joint:

1. Type

2. Articular Surface

3. Ligaments

4. Movements

1. Plane synovial

2. Anterior surface of navicular with posterior surface of cuneiforms

3. Dorsal and plantar ligaments

4. Little movement possible

21

Tarsometatarsal Joint:

1. Type

2. Articular Surface

3. Ligaments

4. Movements

1. Plane synovial

2. Anterior tarsal bones with bases of metatarsal bones

3. Dorsal, plantar, and interosseus ligaments

4. Gliding or sliding

22

Intermetatarsal Joint:

1. Type

2. Articular Surface

3. Ligaments

4. Movements

1. Plane synovial

2. Bases of metatarsal bones with each other

3. Dorsal, plantar, and interosseus ligaments

4. Little individual movement possible

23

Metatarsophalangeal Joint:

1. Type

2. Articular Surface

3. Ligaments

4. Movements

1. Condyloid synovial

2. Heads of metatarsal bones with bases of proximal phalanges

3. Collateral ligaments support capsule on each side; plantar ligaments supports plantar part of capsule

4. Flexion, extension, and some abduction, adduction and circumduction

24

Interphalangeal Joint:

1. Type

2. Articular Surface

3. Ligaments

4. Movements

1. Hinge synovial

2. Head of one phalanx with base of one distal to it

3. Collateral and plantar ligaments 

4. Flexion and extension

25

Name the muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg.

1. Tibialis Anterior

2. Externsor Hallucis Longus

3. Extensor Digitorum Longus

4. Peroneus Tertius

26

Tibialias Anterior:

1. Origin

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Lateral condyle and superior half of lateral surface of tibia

2. Medial and inferior surfaces of medial cuneiform and base of first metatarsal

3. Deep Peroneal Nerve (L4 and L5)

5. Dorsiflexes ankle and inverts foot

27

Extensor Hallucis Longus:

1. Origin

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Middle part of anterior surface of fibula and interosseus membrane

2. Dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of 1st toe

3. Deep Peroneal Nerve (L5 and S1)

4. Extends 1st toe and dorsiflexes ankle

 

28

Extensor Digitorum Longus:

1. Origin

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Lateral condyle and superior 3/4s of tibia and anterior surface of interosseus membrane

2. Middle and distal phalanges of lateral four digits

3. Deep Peroneal Nerve (L5 and S1)

4. Extends lateral four digits and dorsiflexes ankle

 

29

Peroneus Tertius:

1. Origin

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Interior third of anterior surface of fibula and interosseus membrane

2. Dorsum of base of fifth metatarsal

3. Deep Peroneal Nerve (L5 and S1)

4. Dorsiflexes ankle and aids in eversion of foot

30

Name the muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg.

1. Peroneus Longus

2. Peroneus Brevis

31

Peroneus Longus:

1. Origin

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Actions

1. Head and superior 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula

2. Base of first metatarsal and medial cuneiform

3. Superficial Peroneal Nerve (L5, S1, and S2)

4. Eversion of foot and weakly plantarflexes ankle

32

Peroneus Brevis:

1. Origin

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Inferior 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula

2. Dorsal surface of tuberosity on lateral side of base of fifth metatarsal

3. Superficial Peroneal Nerve (L5, S1, and S2)

4. Eversion of foot and weakly plantarflexes ankle

33

Name the muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg.

Superficial Muscles        Deep Muscles

1. Gastrocnemius            4. Popliteus

2. Soleus                         5. Flexor Hallucis Longus

3. Plantaris                      6. Flexor Digitorum Longus

                                         7. Tibialis Posterior

 

34

Gastrocnemius:

1. Origin

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Lateral head: Lateral aspect of lateral condle of femur; Medial head; popliteal surface of femur, superior to medial condyle

2. Posterior surface of calcaneus with achilles tendon

3. Tibial Nerve (S1 and S2)

4. Plantarflexion and knee flexion

35

Soleus:

1. Origin

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Posterior aspect of head of fibula, superior fourth of posterior surface of fibula, soleal line and medial border of tibia

2. Posterior surface of calcaneus with achilles tendon

3. Tibial Nerve (S1 and S2)

4. Plantarflexion and stabilizes tibia on foot when standing limiting forward sway

36

Plantaris:

1. Origin

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1, Inferior end of lateral supracondylar line of femur and oblique popliteal ligament

2. Posterior surface of calcaneus with achilles tendon

3. Tibial Nerve (S1 and S2)

4. Weakly assists gastroc in plantarflexing ankle and flexing knee

37

Popliteus:

1. Origin

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Lateral surface of lateral condyle of the femur and lateral meniscus

2. Posterior surface of tibia, superior to soleal line

3. Tibial Nerve (L4, L5, and S1)

4. Weakly flexes knee and unlocks it

 

38

Flexor Hallucis Longus:

1. Origin

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Inferior 2/3 of posterior surface of fibula and inferior part of interosseus membrane

2. Base of distal phalanx of great toe

3. Tibial Nerve (S2 and S3)

4. Flexes great toe and plantarflexes ankle; supports medial longitudinal arch 

39

Flexor Digitorum Longus:

1. Origin

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Medial part of posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line, and by a broad tendon to fibula

2. Plantar bases of distal phalanges of lateral four digits

3. Tibial Nerve (S2 and S3)

4. Flexes lateral four digits and plantarflexes ankle; supports longitudinal arches of foot

40

Tibialis Posterior:

1. Origin

2. Insertion

3. Innervation

4. Action

1. Interosseus membrane and posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line, and posterior surface of fibula

2. Tuberosity of navicular, cuneiform, and cuboid and bases of second, third, and fourth metatarsals

3. Tibial Nerve (L4, L5)

4. Plantarflexes ankle and inverts foot

41

Popliteal Artery:

1. Origin

2. Course

3. Distribution in Leg

1. Continuation of femoral artery at adductor hiatus in adductor magnus

2. Passes through popliteal fossa to leg; ends at lower border of popliteus muscle by dividing into anterior and posterior tibial arteries

3. Superior, middle, and inferior genicular arteries to both lateral and medial aspects of knee

42

Anterior Tibial Artery:

1. Origin

2. Course

3. Distribution in Leg

1. Popliteal Artery

2. Passes between tibia and fibula into anterior compartment through gap in superior part of interosseus membrane and descends on this membrane between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus

3. Anterior compartment of leg

43

Dorsalis Pedis Artery:

1. Origin

2. Course

3. Distribution in Leg

1. Continuation of anterior tibial artery distal to inferior extensor retinaculum

2. Descends anteromedially to first interosseus space and divides into plantar and arcuate arteries

3. Muscles on dorsum of foot; pierces first dorsal interosseus muscle as deep plantar artery to contribute to formation of plantar arch

 

44

Posterior Tibial Artery:

1. Origin

2. Course

3. Distribution in Leg

1. Popliteal Artery

2. Passes through posterior compartment of leg and terminates distal to flexor retinaculum by dividing into medial and lateral plantar arteries

3. Posterior and lateral compartments of leg; circumflex peroneal branch and joins anastomoses around knee; nutrient artery passes to tibia

 

45

Peroneal Artery:

1. Origin

2. Course

3. Distribution in Leg

1. Posterior Tibial Artery

2. Descends in posterior compartment adjacent to posterior intermuscular septum

3. Posterior compartment of leg: perforating branches supply lateral compartment of leg

 

46

Medial Plantar Artery:

1. Origin

2. Course

3. Distribution in Leg

1. Posterior Tibial Artery

2. Passes distally in foot between abductor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis

3. Supplies mainly muscles of great toe and skin on medial side of sole

47

Lateral Plantar Artery:

1. Origin

2. Course

3. Distribution in Leg

1. Posterior Tibial Artery

2. Runs anterolaterally deep to abductor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis and then arches medially to for deep plantar arch

3. Supplies remainder of sole of foot