Forearm, wrist and hand orthopaedics and trauma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Forearm, wrist and hand orthopaedics and trauma Deck (74):
1

What is the name given to a fracture of the radius with dislocation of the ulna at the distal radioulnar joint?

Galeazzi fracture dislocation

2

What is a Monteggia fracture dislocation?

A fracture of the ulna occurs with dislocation of the radial head at the elbow

3

What is the management for a Monteggia fracture dislocation and why?

ORIF, even in children

Manipulation alone has a high recurrence rate

4

What is Dupuytren's contracture?

A proliferative connective tissue disorder where the specialized palmar fascia undergoes hyperplasia with normal fascial bands forming nodules and cords progressingto contractures at the MCP and PIP joints

5

What is the pathology involved in Dupuytren's contracture?

Proliferation of myofibroblast cells and the production of abnormal collagen (type 3 rather than type 1)

6

What proportion of cases of Dupuytren's contracture are bilateral?

50%

7

Which fingers are most commonly involved in Dupuytren's contracture?

Ring and little fingers

8

Which gender is more affected by Dupuytren's contracture?

Males 10:1

9

What can cause Dupuytren's?

Familial - autosomal dominant inheritance

Alcoholic disease

A side effect of phenytoin therapy

Common in diabetics

10

What other fibromatosis is Dupuytren's associated with?

Peyronie’s disease, which affects the penis

Plantar fibromatosis affecting the feet (Ledderhose disease)

11

When is surgical treatment for Dupuytren's disease offered?

If contractures are interfering with function

Up to 30° of contracture can be tolerated at the MCP joint and but the PIPJ readily stiffens and any contracture here is usually an indication for surgery

12

What surgical management is avaliable for Dupuytren's contracture?

 Removal of all diseased tissue (fasciectomy)

Division of cords (fasciotomy)

13

What causes trigger finger?

Tendonitis of a flexor tendon to a digit can result in nodular enlargement of the affected tendon, and can get stuck in a fascial pulley, holding the finger in a 'trigger' position

14

What fascial pulley is usually involved in trigger finger?

A1

15

What will relieve the symptoms of trigger finger in most patients?

Injection of steroid around the tendon

16

Which site of the hands is very common for development of OA in post-menopausal women?

Distal interphalangeal joints

 

17

Which metocarpal joint is commonly affected by OA, especially in women?

1st - base of thumb

 

18

Which joints in the hands tend to be spared by RA?

DIP joints

19

What are the three stages of RA in the hands?

Synovitis and tenosynovitis

Erosions of the joints – inflammatory pannus denudes the joints of articular cartilage

Joint instability and tendon rupture – patients can progress to subluxation and chronic tenosynovitis predisposes to extensor tendon ruptures

20

What are the deformities of the hands seen in RA?

Volar MCPJ subluxation

Ulnar deviation

Swan neck deformity

Boutonniere deformity

Z-shaped thumb

21

What is a swan neck deformity?

Hyperextension at PIPJ with flexion of DIPJ

A image thumb
22

What is Boutonniere's deformity?

Flexion at PIPJ with hyperextension of DIPJ

A image thumb
23

Which procedure may prevent tendon rupture in the hands in RA?

Tenosynovectomy (excision of synovial tendon sheath)

24

What procedure may be required for distal radio-ulnar joint RA?

Resection of the distal ulna

25

What are ganglion cysts?

Mucinous filled cysts found adjacent to a tendon or synovial joint, commonly found in the hand or wrist

26

What are the most common soft tissue swellings of the hand?

Ganglion cysts

27

Where are giant cell tumours of the tendon sheath found?

 They are usually on the palmar surface of the hand

Common around the PIP joint of the index and middle fingers 

28

Where can giant cell tumours of the tendon sheath spread locally?

They can envelop the digital artery or nerve and erode into bone

29

What is the significance of the radius and ulna being connected proximally and distally by strong ligaments around the proximal and distal radio‐ulnar joints in relation to fractures?

 The forearm acts as a ring where if one bone is fractures, there is usually a fracture or dislocation involving the other bone

30

What is a nightstick fracture?

A fracture of the ulnar shaft

31

How might a Nightstick fracture occur?

Direct blow to the ulna

32

What associated injury must be checked for in Nightstick fracture?

Monteggia - dislocation of radial head with the ulnar fracture

33

What treatment is used for a fracture of both bones of the forearm?

Usually requires ORIF with plates and screws

Anatomical reduction required to preserve function

34

How can minimally angulated fractures of both bones of the forearm in children be treated?

Plaster only

35

What is a Colles fracture?

An extra‐articular fracture of the distal radius with dorsal displacement

36

What other fracture may be associated with a Colles fracture?

Associated fracture of the ulnar styloid

37

How might minimally angulated/displaced Colles fractures be treated?

Splintage

38

How is a Colles fracture with any angulation past neutral treated?

Manipulation and held in a plaster cast

Percutaneous wires or ORIF with plate & screws may be preferred if fracture is particularly unstable

39

What complications can arise from a Colles fracture?

Median nerve compression from stretch of the nerve or a bleed into the carpal tunnel

Rupture of the Extensor Pollicis Longus tendon

40

What is Smith's fracture?

 A volarly displaced or angulated extra‐articular fracture of the distal radius

41

How does Smith's fracture usually occur?

Falling onto the back of a flexed wrist

42

What is the treatment for Smith's fractures?

ORIF with plate and screws

43

What are Barton's fractures?

Intra‐articular fractures of the distal radius involving the dorsal or volar rim, where the carpal bones of the wrist joint sublux with the displaced rim fragment

44

How can Barton's fractures be classified?

Volar Barton's fractures (an intra-articular Smith's fracture)

Dorsal Barton's fracture (an intra-articular Colles' fracture)

45

How do scaphoid fractures usually occur?

Fall onto outstretched hand

46

What are the signs of a scaphoid fracture?

Tenderness in anatomical snuffbox

Pain on compressing (telescoping) the thumb metacarpal

47

How is an accurate image of the scaphoid taken?

4 different Xrays are taken

AP, lateral and two oblique views

48

What should be done if scaphoid fracture suspected but not shown on Xray?

Splint the wrist

Further clinical assessment

Repeat Xrays after 2 weeks

49

What are the complications of a scaphoid fracture?

Non-union

AVN of proximal pole (its blood supply comes distally)

 

 

50

How are displaced scaphoid fractures treated?

Fixed with a special compression screw sunk into the bone to avoid non‐union

51

How are scaphoid non-unions treated?

Screw fixation and bone grafting

52

What is a peri-lunate dislocation?

Dislocation of one of the carpal bones around the lunate

 

53

How does a peri-lunate dislocation usually occur?

High energy wrist injury resulting from hyperdorsiflexion

54

What will Xrays show in peri-lunate fracture?

 A loss of alignment of the capitate and lunate with the concave lunate fossa being empty

55

What is the treatment for peri-lunate dislocation?

Emergency treatment is required with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning or open reduction if closed reduction is not possible

56

What does lunate dislocation show on Xray?

 “Spilt cup” sign of the lunate which is usually tilted volarly and empty like a split tea cup

57

How does scapho-lunate dissociation occur?

Rupture of the scapho-lunate ligament

58

What happens if scapho-lunate dissociation is left untreated?

Abnormal forces are placed upon the wrist and carpus and osteoarthritis ensues

59

How is scapho-lunate dissociation treated?

 Closed reduction and k‐wiring with or without scapholunate ligament repair

60

What structures are put at risk in a penetrating injury of the volar aspect of the hand?

 Flexor tendons

Digital nerves

Digital arteries

61

What structures are put at risk with penetrating injuries to the dorsum of the hand?

Extensor tendons

62

What extensor tendon injuries in the hand are treated and how?

More than 50% division

Surgical repair with splintage in extension for 6 weeks

63

What is mallet finger?

Avulsion of the extensor tendon from its insertion into the terminal phalanx and is caused by forced flexion of the extended DIPJ

64

How does mallet finger present?

Pain

Drooped finger

Inability to extend the DIPJ

65

What is the treatment for mallet finger?

A mallet splint holding the DIPJ extended which should be worn continuously for a minimum of 4 weeks

66

Which metacarpal fractures are treated conservatively?

3rd, 4th and 5th

67

How do fractures of the 5th metacarpal tend to occur?

A punching injury

68

What degree of flexion in a 5th metacarpal injury can be tolerated without affecting function?

45 degrees

69

Displacement of the 5th metacarpal in which plane should be fixed to avoid functional issues?

Rotational deformity

70

How are metacarpal fractures treated conservatively?

Neighbour strapping of the affected digit to the adjacent finger and early motion to maintain function

71

What treatment should be given in a fight-bite associated with metacarpal fracture?

Surgical washout of the wound to avoid septic arthritis

72

How are most phalangeal fractures managed?

Neighbour strapping

Splintage

73

How might intra-articular phalangeal fractures be fixed?

K-wires or small screws

74

How are significantly displaced or angulated phalangeal fractures managed?

Manipulation under anaesthetic