Form (grammar, structure and phonology) - children Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Form (grammar, structure and phonology) - children Deck (40):
1

When do the earliest two word utterances emerge in children, showing a variety of grammatical relationships?

1.5 - 2 years

2

What are the structures of the two word utterances in children, at 1.5 - 2 years?

SV - "baby sleep"
SC/O - "that hot"
VO/C - "look car"
AX - Adverbial and some other element
NegX - Negative and some other element (added to affirmative statements)

3

What is telegraphic speech and when does it emerge?

Speech with only the key nouns and verbs, and few grammatical markers, at age 1.5 - 2 years

4

When does a form of wh-question appear, which is learned as a whole unit (rote production)?

1.5 - 2 years

5

When do children continue to use one and two element utterances and begin to use three elements?

2 - 2.5 years

6

What are the three element utterances used by children 2 -2.5 years old?

SVO - "me got cup"
SVA (adverbial) - "dolly sit chair"
VOdOi - "give dolly biccy"
NegXY (negation and two other elements) - "it not broken"
QXY (question and two other elements) - "where it go?"
VXY (command verb and two other elements) - "put it there"

7

When do children learn vocabulary forms rather than having an awareness of irregulars/passives?

2 - 2.5 years

8

When do children express echolalia (repeating adult utterances without understanding)?

2 - 2.5 years

9

When do children use '-ing', 'on' and 'plural /s/'?

2 - 2.5 years

10

When do children begin to use 'no', 'not', 'can't' and 'don't'?

2 - 2.5 years

11

When do children form questions using rising intonation?

2 - 2.5 years

12

When do children use semi-auxiliaries such as 'gonna', 'gotta' and 'hafta'?

2 - 2.5 years

13

When do children use the basic adult forms of sentences?

2.5 - 3 years

14

What are the basic adult forms that children use 2.5 - 3 years?

SVC/OA
QXYZ
SVA+
SVO+

15

When are children inconsistent in the use of function words and word endings?

2.5 - 3 years

16

When are verb forms frequently inaccurate by the auxiliary system is used, e.g "he have been crying"

2.5 - 3 years

17

When does possessive 's appear?

2.5 - 3 years

18

When do overregularised past tense forms appear?

2.5 - 3 years

19

When do tag questions appear?

2.5 - 3 years

20

When do children link sentences with 'and'?

3 - 3.5 years

21

When do children embed sentences?

3 - 3.5 years

22

When do children use conjunctions as a pause filler?

3 - 3.5 years

23

When are other conjunctions used, e.g. 'cos'?

3 - 3.5 years

24

When do children express clear meanings but show errors in structure, use restrictions, agreement and irregularities?

3 - 3.5 years

25

When are negative forms used consistently and correctly?

3 - 3.5 years

26

When are determiners used?

3 - 3.5 years

27

When is the irregular past tense used correctly?

3 - 3.5 years

28

When do children use grammatical features such as pronouns?

3.5 - 4 years

29

When do children establish most irregular and plural nouns?

3.5 - 4 years

30

When are there still problems with agreement as there are errors when the content load is high?

3.5 - 4 years

31

When are there pre-passives?

3.5 - 4 years

32

When do they use 'and' and 'because'?

3.5 - 4 years

33

When do they use 'when' and 'how' questions?

3.5 - 4 years

34

What happens in the first year of life in terms of phonology?

- Separate speech from environmental sounds
- Identify words in a stream of speech, and only recognise sound patterns rather than meaning
- Co-ordinate their lips, tongue and vocal cords during the babbling and jargon phase (motor skills)
- Sound patterns co-occur in routines
- Certain noises please adults which means there is extra gratification from the adult

35

What are protowords?

A combination of sounds that child uses consistently to refer to something, e.g. 'bibi' - drink

36

What are holophrases?

The use of a single word (or combination of gesture and single word) to convey meaning than just the word alone

37

What do key words/information carrying words offer?

We can pick out the important ideas which show what the child is expressing. Rather than try to impose an adult grammar, we can say the child is expressing multiple ideas

38

What did Fraser et al state about comprehension?

Explored the assertion that understanding precedes production:
Children could imitate grammatical structures before understanding them, and understand them before using them spontaneously

39

What did Clarke state about comprehension?

Found a child make use a construction inaccurately in a correct situation before understanding

40

What are the nature of early sentences (relationships)?

Agent + Action - 'Daddy throw'
Agent + Object - 'Daddy ball'
Action + Object - 'Throw ball'
Negation + X - 'No ball, no throw'
X + Dative - 'Throw me, ball me'
X + Locative - 'Ball there'
Attribute + Object - 'Red ball'
Introducer + X - 'That ball'