Flashcards in Formal fallacies Deck (17):

1

## Appeal to probability.

### Statement that takes something for granted because it would probably be the case (or might be the case).

2

## Argument from fallacy.

### Assumption that if an argument for some conclusion is fallacious, then the conclusion is false.

3

## Base rate fallacy.

### Making a probability judgement based on conditional probabilities, without taking into account the effect of prior probabilities.

4

## Conjunction fallacy.

### Assumption that an outcome simultaneously satisfying multiple conditions is more probable than an outcome satisfying just one of them.

5

## Masked-man fallacy.

### The substitution of identical designators in a true statement can lead to a false one.

6

## Affirming a disjunct.

### The statement that A or B; A, therefore not B.

7

## Affirming the consequent.

### The statement that if A then B; B, therefore A.

8

## Denying the antecedent.

### The statement that if A then B; not A, therefore not B.

9

## Existential fallacy.

### An argument that has a universal premise and a particular conclusion.

10

## Affirmative conclusion from a negative premise.

### A categorical syllogism has a positive conclusion, but at least one negative premise.

11

## Fallacy of exclusive premises.

### A categorical syllogism that is invalid because both of its premises are negative.

12

## Fallacy of four terms.

### A categorical syllogism that has four terms.

13

## Illicit major.

### A categorical syllogism that is invalid because its major term is not distributed in the major premise but distributed in the conclusion.

14

## Illicit minor.

### A categorical syllogism that is invalid because its minor term is not distributed in the minor premise but distributed in the conclusion.

15

## Negative conclusion from affirmative premises.

### A categorical syllogism has a negative conclusion but affirmative premises.

16

## Fallacy of the undistributed middle.

### The middle term in a categorical syllogism is not distributed.

17