Flashcards in Formal fallacies Deck (17):
Appeal to probability.
Statement that takes something for granted because it would probably be the case (or might be the case).
Argument from fallacy.
Assumption that if an argument for some conclusion is fallacious, then the conclusion is false.
Base rate fallacy.
Making a probability judgement based on conditional probabilities, without taking into account the effect of prior probabilities.
Assumption that an outcome simultaneously satisfying multiple conditions is more probable than an outcome satisfying just one of them.
The substitution of identical designators in a true statement can lead to a false one.
Affirming a disjunct.
The statement that A or B; A, therefore not B.
Affirming the consequent.
The statement that if A then B; B, therefore A.
Denying the antecedent.
The statement that if A then B; not A, therefore not B.
An argument that has a universal premise and a particular conclusion.
Affirmative conclusion from a negative premise.
A categorical syllogism has a positive conclusion, but at least one negative premise.
Fallacy of exclusive premises.
A categorical syllogism that is invalid because both of its premises are negative.
Fallacy of four terms.
A categorical syllogism that has four terms.
A categorical syllogism that is invalid because its major term is not distributed in the major premise but distributed in the conclusion.
A categorical syllogism that is invalid because its minor term is not distributed in the minor premise but distributed in the conclusion.
Negative conclusion from affirmative premises.
A categorical syllogism has a negative conclusion but affirmative premises.
Fallacy of the undistributed middle.
The middle term in a categorical syllogism is not distributed.