Formal fallacies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Formal fallacies Deck (17):
1

Appeal to probability.

Statement that takes something for granted because it would probably be the case (or might be the case).

2

Argument from fallacy.

Assumption that if an argument for some conclusion is fallacious, then the conclusion is false.

3

Base rate fallacy.

Making a probability judgement based on conditional probabilities, without taking into account the effect of prior probabilities.

4

Conjunction fallacy.

Assumption that an outcome simultaneously satisfying multiple conditions is more probable than an outcome satisfying just one of them.

5

Masked-man fallacy.

The substitution of identical designators in a true statement can lead to a false one.

6

Affirming a disjunct.

The statement that A or B; A, therefore not B.

7

Affirming the consequent.

The statement that if A then B; B, therefore A.

8

Denying the antecedent.

The statement that if A then B; not A, therefore not B.

9

Existential fallacy.

An argument that has a universal premise and a particular conclusion.

10

Affirmative conclusion from a negative premise.

A categorical syllogism has a positive conclusion, but at least one negative premise.

11

Fallacy of exclusive premises.

A categorical syllogism that is invalid because both of its premises are negative.

12

Fallacy of four terms.

A categorical syllogism that has four terms.

13

Illicit major.

A categorical syllogism that is invalid because its major term is not distributed in the major premise but distributed in the conclusion.

14

Illicit minor.

A categorical syllogism that is invalid because its minor term is not distributed in the minor premise but distributed in the conclusion.

15

Negative conclusion from affirmative premises.

A categorical syllogism has a negative conclusion but affirmative premises.

16

Fallacy of the undistributed middle.

The middle term in a categorical syllogism is not distributed.

17

Modal fallacy.

Confusing possibility with necessity.