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Flashcards in Foundations Deck (68):
1

Fetal placental structure that secretes hCG

syncitiotrophoblast

2

Maternal component of the placenta 

Decidua basalis

3

Energy available to fuel endergonic reactions (anabolic)

glucose > pyruvate > Adenosine triphosphate > Adenosine monophosphate > Adenosine.

4

Stages of an embryo between conception and an inner cell mass

Zygote -> Morula  -> Blastocyst  ->  Inner Cell Mass + Trophoblast

5

Deficiency of this gene causes holoprosencephaly

Sonic hedgehog gene - Produced at base of limbs in zone of polarizing activity

6

Lack of this gene results in short limbs

FGF gene -  fibroblast growth factor: produced at apical ectodermal ridge, stimulates mitosis of underlying mesoderm - lengthens limbs

7

Homeobox (HOX) Genes

 

  • BIueprt for skeletal morphology
  • Code for transcription regulators
  • Mutation in Homeobox HOXD-l3  synpolydactyly (extra fused digit between 3rd and 4th fuigers)
  • Retinoic acid alters HOX gene expression

8

Surface ectoderm

  • Adenohypophysis (from Rathke’s pouch) - Craniopharyngioma - benign Rathke's puch tumor with cholesterol crystals, calcifications - it didn't become induced by the notocord
  • lens of eye
  • epithelial linings of oral cavity, sensory
  • organs of ear, and olfactory epithelium
  • epidermis
  • anal canal below the pectinate line
  • salivary, sweat, and mammary glands

9

Neuroectoderm

  • CNS and Brain
  • Brain (neurohypophysis, CNS neurons,
    oligod en drocy tes, astrocytes, ependymal cells,pineal gland)
  • retina
  • spinal cord

10

Neural Crest

PNS and non-neural structures nearby (STAMPEDE to heart) "missionaries" of the neuroectoderm

11

Endoderm

  • Gut tube epit helium (including anal canal above the pectinate line) and derivatives 
  • lungs
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • thy mus
  • parathyroid
  • thyroid follicular cells

12

Mesoderm

  • Muscle
  • bone
  • connective tissue
  • seroas
  • linings of body cavities (e.g., peritoneum),
  • spleen (derived from foregut mesentery)
  • cardiovascular structures
  • lymphatics
  • blood
  • bladder
  • urethra
  • vagina
  • eustachian tube,
  • kidneys
  • adrenal cortex
  • skin dermis
  • testes, ovaries

13

Mesodermal defects

Mesodermal defects = VACTERL

  • Vertebral defects
  • Anal atresia
  • Cardiac defects
  • Tracheo - Esophageal fistula
  • Renal defects
  • Limb defects (bone and muscle)

14

#1 cause of mental retardation in the US

Fetal alcohol syndrome - Even just 1 drink a day can have deleterious effects. NO ALCOHOL WHATSOEVER! Cleft lip, cleft palate.

15

 

Relationship between notochord, neural plate, neural tube, and neural crest

  • Notochord forms the neural plate.
  • Neural plate - gives rise to the he neural tube and neural crest cells

16

Drugs contraindicated in pregnancy

  • Antiseizures: Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Valproate.
  • Antibiotics: Aminoglycosides, Tetracyclines, Fluoroquinolones (cartilage abnormalities), Sulfonamides, Clarithromycin, Chloramphenicol (gray baby).
  • Folate Antagonists: Pyrimethamine, methotrexate (kills ectopic pregnancies).
  • Miscellaneous: ACE inhibitors, Thalidomide, Diethylstilbestrol (DES) Warfarin (Coumadin)

17

NCC derivative deficiencies

  • Aganglionic colon,
  • Albinism (melanocytes),
  • Dental abnormalities(odontoblasts),
  • PNS abnormalities,
  • Abnormalities of bones and skull.
  • Thyroid abnormalities from parafollicular (C) cells,
  • Adrenal abnormalities from chromaffin cells,
  • Disruptions of the aorticopulmonary septum.

18

Nuclear Lamins

provide the structural framework for DNA and the nuclear envelope

19

Are responsible for fostering the progression through the cell cycle.

Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases

20

Cyclin-CDK complexes that assist in the progression from G1 phase to S phase

Cyclin D + CDK4 and Cyclin E + CDK2. "D-K4 and E-K2"

 

"Good 1 Sporting: Dave cycles up K4, Eric cycles up K2"

21

Cyclins-CDK complexes that assist in the progression of G2 to M phase

Cyclin A + CDK2 and Cyclin B + CDK1

 

"Good SECOND Mountain (to climb) Alex cycles up K2, Bob cycles K1"

22

In I-cell disease, there is a deficiency of

  • Mannose Phosphorylation - no mannose-6-phosphate to target lysosomal proteins -> secretion out of cell instead of into lysosomes
  • Mannose-6-Phosphate is a molecule that targets proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum for lysosomes
  • Death by age 8
  • (+) corneal clouding, course facies, HSM, skeletal abnormalities, restricted joint movement, +/- MR

23

Nuclear localization signals contain these amino acids.

Lysine, Arginine, Proline

24

Granulomatous diseases

  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Fungal infections (e.g., histoplasmosis)
  • Treponema pallidum (syphilis)
  • M. leprae (leprosy)
  • Bartonella henselae (cat scratch disease)
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Berylliosis 
  • Listeria
  • Foreign bodies
  • Wegner's 
  • Chronic granulomatous disease

25

Leukocyte extravasation

  • Rolling (selectins)
  • Tight binding (integrins)
  • Diapedesis (PECAM-1
  • Migration (CILK)

26

C-Reactive Protein

 
  • Acute-phase reactant synthesized by the liver
  • Part of the innate immune response: opsonizes bacteria and activates complement clears microbes
  • Can be secreted from cells within atherosclerotic plaques to activate local endothelial cells to induce a prothrombotic state and increase the adhesiveness of the endothelium to leukocytes
  • Elevations are a strong predictor of Ml, stroke, PAD, and sudden cardiac death
  • CRP can be lowered by smoking cessation, exercise, weight loss, and statins

27

Elevated ESR

  • Polymyalgia rheumatica
  • Temporal arteritis
  • Disease activity in RA and SLE
  • Infection, Inflammation (osteomyeliis)
  • Malignancy

28

Epithelial Wound Healing 

 

  • 0-3 hours - Hemorrhage and clotting
  • 12-24 hours - Acute inflammation (PMN)
  • 2-4 days - Macrophage infiltration and epithelial cell migration
  • 3-5 days - Granulation tissue (especially at wound edges)
  • Months - Collagen production (type Ill then type I)

29

Findings associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

  • Hyperextensible skin,
  • tendency to bleed (easy bruising),
  • Hypermobile joints.
  • Aneurysms.
  • Type III collagen most frequently affected.

30

Types of collagen

  • Type I: Tendon, bone, dentin, skin, fascia, cornea;
  • Type II: Cartilage, vitreous body;
  • Type III: Blood vessels, granulation tissue, uterus, fetal tissue;
  • Type IV: Basement membrane. 

31

Amino acids found in large concentrations in collagen

  • Glycine, Proline, hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine.
  • Elastin: Rich in proline and glycine, nonglycosylated forms.

32

4 transcription factors essential in pluripotent stem cells

  • Oct3/4
  • myc-c
  • SOX2
  • KLf4

33

Amino Acids modified in the Golgi apparatus

Serine, Threonine, Asparagine

34

$$$ What structures are derived from the Endoderm?

Parenchyma of:

  • Liver
  • Thyroid
  • Pancreas 
  • Parathyroids

Epithelial lining of:

  • Respiratory tract
  • tonsils
  • thymus
  • bladder, urethra
  • tympanic cavity
  • auditory tube
  • GI tract

35

Fetal landmark within 1 week

hCG secretion begins after implantation of blastocyst

36

Fetal landmarks within week 2

How does the primitive streak form? What does the primitive streak give rise to?

  • 2 germ layers Bilaminar disk (epiblast, hypoblast)
  • 2 cavities: amniotic cavity, yolk sac
  • 2 components to placenta: cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast

Epiblast (precursor to embryo) invaginates to form the primitive streak. Cells from the primitive streak give rise to both

  • intraembryonic mesoderm  
  • endoderm (part of)

37

Fetal landmarks within week 3

  • 3 germ layers (gastrula)Trilaminar disc
  • Gastrulation
  • Primitive streak, notochord, mesoderm and its organization
  • Neural plate begins to form

38

Fetal landmarks weeks 3-8 

(embryonic period)

  • Neural tube formed by neuroectoderm and closes by week 4
  • Organogenesis
  • Extremely susceptible to teratgens

39

Fetal landmarks Week 4

  • Heart begins to beat
  • Upper and lower limb buds begin to form

40

Fetal landmarks week 8

(Fetal period)

  • MOVEMENT!
  • Fetus looks like baby

41

Fetal landmarks

Week 10

Genitalia have male/female characteristics

42

When Rb protein comes unbound from this transcription factor, the cell can prepare to move from G-1 into S phase.

Transcription factor E2F
 
  • Cyclin D binds/activates CDK4 ->
  • Phosphorylation of RB protein ->
  • RB protein is released from transription factor E2F ->
  • with E2F unbound, the cell is free to transcribe/synthesize components needed for progression through the S phase (cyclin E, DNA polymerase, thymidine kinase, dihydrofolate reductase)

43

When do endosomes become lysosomes?

Endosomes become lysosomes when hydrolytic enzymes enter.

44

Organelle of critical importance for Neural tissue

Peroxisomes and Plasmalogens

Involved in the catabolism of very long chain fatty acids and amino acids

45

What is a proteasome?

 

What are 3 ways proteins can be degraded?

  • Barrel-shaped protein complex
  • Degrades damaged or unnecessary proteins tagged for destruction with ubiquitin

3 ways to degrade protein:

  • Ubiquitin mechanism
  • Lysosome degradation
  • Calcium dependent enzyme - not in lysosome

46

Rb protein and p53 regulate the cell cycle by

Preventing the Cell from Progressing From G1 Phase -> S Phase

47

Staining of the following intermediate filament is useful to ID which cell type?

Vimentin

  • Connective tissue
  • Sarcomas 
  • Some carcinomas

48

Staining of the following intermediate filament is useful to ID which cell type?

Desmin

  • muscle
  • myosarcoma

49

Staining of the following intermediate filament is useful to ID which cell type?

Cytokeratin

  • Epithelial cells
  • IDs Carcinomas
  • some sarcomas

50

Staining of the following intermediate filament is useful to ID which cell type?

GFAP

  • NeuroGlia
  • Astocytomas
  • GBM

51

Staining of the following intermediate filament is useful to ID which cell type?

Neurofilaments

  • Axons within Neurons
  • Adrenal neuroblastoma
  • Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs)

Note: Neurons can be IDed via peripherin

52

Staining of the following intermediate filament is useful to ID which cell type?

Nuclear lamins (A,B,C)

 

Mutations in nuclar lamins result in what disease?

Nuclear envelope and DNA within

Example: Cyclin B and CDK1

 

Progeria - advanced cellular aging ( 5yo looks like an old man)

53

Apoptosis cannot be initiated in the presence of severe DNA damage if this protein is mutated?

p53 - triggers apoptosis if DNA damage is present and the DNA repair process fails

54

Bax

Pro-aptotic

55

Bcl-2

Anti-apoptotic, if levels are reduced, intrinsic pathway of apoptosis occurs

56

CD31

Prevents apoptosis (expressed on surface of healthy cells)

57

Histologic features of apoptotic liver cells

  • Cell shrinkage
  • Pyknosis (basophilia)
  • Nuclear fragmentation(karyorrhexis)
  • Nuclear fading (karyolysis)
  • Membrane blebbing
  • Formation of apoptotic bodies

58

Substances that can trigger apoptosis

  • Deprivation of growth factors,
  • Cell stress,
  • DNA is damaged and repair fails,
  • Cytokines (TNF) triggers apoptosis,
  • Cytotoxic T cells insert granzyme B

59

Cellular particles responsible for handling oxygen free radicals are

  • catalase
  • Superoxide dismutase
  • Glutathion peroxidase

60

What byproducts might e detected in the serum when the following cell type is injured:

Cardiac myocytes

  • CK
  • LDH
  • troponin

61

What byproducts might e detected in the serum when the following cell type is injured:

Skeletal myocytes

  • CK
  • Aldolase
  • LDH

62

What byproducts might e detected in the serum when the following cell type is injured:

Hepatocytes

  • AST
  • ALT
  • Alkaline phosphatase
  • GGT

63

What byproducts might e detected in the serum when the following cell type is injured:

Salivary gland cells

  • Amylase

64

What byproducts might e detected in the serum when the following cell type is injured:

Pancreatic exocrine cells

  • Amylase
  • Lipase (more specific)

65

What byproducts might e detected in the serum when the following cell type is injured:

RBCs

  • LDH
  • Haptoglobin
  • bilirubin

66

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome

abnormal LFA-1: Delayed separation of the umbilicus, recurrent bacterial infections 

67

Elevated ESR is especially seen in these diseases

  • Polymyalgia rheumatica
  • Temporal arteritis
  • Diseases activity in RA and SLE
  • Infection, Inflammation (osteomyelitis)
  • Malignancy

 

Reduced in 

  • SCA
  • PCV
  • CHF

68

Where can tissue stem cells be found in the Brain?

Neural precursor cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus