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Flashcards in Foundations of Epidemiology Deck (32):
1

Define epidemiology.

The study of the distribution and the determinants of health-related states or events in human populations, and the application of this study to prevent and control health problems.

A study of health / disease etiology / disease prevention on the population-level and the associated factors.

2

Explain the importance of descriptive epidemiology.

Understanding distributions and statistical differences.

3

Explain the importance of descriptive epidemiology.
Note 4 purposes. What questions are answered?

Understanding distributions and statistical differences. Who? What? When? Where?

4

Explain the importance of analytic epidemiology.

Based in the scientific method. Testing hypotheses and determining etiologies.
A means to identifying and quantifying associations, testing hypotheses, and supporting statements about causality.

5

Explain the importance of analytic epidemiology.
What questions are answered?

Based in the scientific method. Testing hypotheses and determining etiologies. Why? How?
A means to identifying and quantifying associations, testing hypotheses, and supporting statements about causality.

6

Identify some activities performed in epidemiology.

- Identifying risk factors
- Describing the natural history of the disease
- Identifying individuals and populations at greatest risk for disease
- Setting PH priorities
- Monitoring diseases and other health-related events over time
- Evaluating the efficacy (Works for those who participate and try it) and effectiveness (Actually able to access the necessary population and works for them) of prevention and treatment programs
- Providing information and establishing health programs with appropriate priorities
- Assisting in carrying out PH programs
- Being a resource person
- Communicating PH information

7

Explain the role of epidemiology in public health practice and individual decision making.

Assessment and monitoring of communities and at-risk populations. (Epidemiology-related).

Formulation of public policies designed to solve identified local and national problems and priorities. (Epidemiology-related).

Assure access to appropriate and cost-effective care (Not as epidemiology-related).

8

Define epidemic

Health-related state or event in a defined population above the expected over a given period of time

9

Define endemic

Persistent, usual, expected health-related state or event in a defined population over a given period of time

10

Define pandemic

Epidemic affecting a large number of people, many countries, continents, or regions

11

Describe common source epidemics

Point; intermittent / continuous.
—
Identifying and removing exposure to the common source typically causes the epidemic to rapidly decrease..

Remember Jon Snow and the London cholera epidemic.
Anthrax can be trace to milk or meat from infected animals.
Botulism can be traced back to soil-contaminated food.
Cholera can be traced back to fecal contamination of food or water.

12

Describe propagated epidemics

Spread from person to person.

Arise from infections being transmitted from one infected person to another. The primary cause of epidemics.

Transmission can be through direct or indirect routes.

Host-to-host epidemics rise and fall more slowly than common source epidemics.

13

Describe mixed epidemics

A mixture of common source and propagated.

—Occurs when a common source epidemic is followed by person-to-person contact and the disease is spread as a propagated outbreak.

14

Describe the concepts and principles of cases as used in epidemiology.

Case - A case is a person who has been diagnosed as having a disease, disorder, injury, or condition.

Primary Case - The first disease case in the population.

Index Case - The first disease case brought to the attention of the epidemiologist (The index case is not always the primary case).

Secondary Case - Those persons who become infected and ill after a disease has been introduced into a population and who become infected from contact with the primary case.

15

Describe the epidemiology triangle for infectious disease.

Environment -

Host -

Agent

(Time in the triangle center)

16

Describe the advanced epidemiology triangle for chronic diseases and behavioral disorders.
How is the advanced triangle different from the original triangle of causality?

Causative factors -

Groups / Population characteristics -

Environment / Behavior / Culture / Physiological factors / Ecological factors

(Time in the triangle center)

17

Define the three levels of prevention used in public health and epidemiology.

(Primordial - Population-level preventative programs)

Primary - Individual-level preventative actions (Can be active or passive)
Secondary - Screenings
Tertiary - Disease treatment and effects reduction

(Quarternary - Preventing overmedicalization)

18

State a few methods of disease transmission

Person-to-person
Fomite
Vehicle-borne
Vector-borne
Zoonosis

19

Define fomite transmission and give an example

Contaminated objects; E.g. hepatitis A / E
(Indirect)

20

Define vehicle-borne transmission and give an example

Inanimate intermediate; E.g. HIV / AIDS transmitted through shared needles
(Indirect)

21

Define vector-borne transmission and give an example

Invertebrate animal provides intermediate between infected animals and humans; E.g. malaria spread by mosquitoes
(Indirect)

22

Define zoonosis and give an example

Vertebrate animal to human transmission; E.g. rabies
(Direct)

23

Define case

A case is a person who has been diagnosed as having a disease, disorder, injury, or condition.

24

Define primary case

The first disease case in the population.

25

Define index case

The first disease case brought to the attention of the epidemiologist (The index case is not always the primary case).

26

Define secondary case

Those persons who become infected and ill after a disease has been introduced into a population and who become infected from contact with the primary case.

27

Person-to-person transmission

Human-to-human transmission through physical contact, airborne transmission, sexual contact, etc.
(Direct)

28

Define carrier

A carrier contains, spreads, or harbors an infectious organism

29

Define healthy carrier

A healthy carrier contains, spreads, or harbors an infectious organism without showing outward signs/symptoms itself.

30

Define direct transmission

Direct physical contact

31

Define indirect transmission

Transmission through some intermediate

32

Describe Rothman's Pies
Define necessary causes
Define component causes
Define sufficient causes

Different pies are indicative of different individuals' situations.
Necessary causes are factors found in all cases.
Component causes are risk factors found in some of the cases.
Sufficient cause is any full pie.