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Flashcards in FP: New World Deck (5)
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1519: Hernán Cortés led expedition to Mexico. Took 600 men, 16 horses and 6 pieces of Artillery. 2 yrs later he had conquered Tenochtitlan, capital of Aztec Empire.

1532: Fransisco Pizarro, with 160 men, defeated Incas in the Andes of Peru.

Both Aztecs and Incas had upset their subjects, who were willing to join Conquistadors, giving important knowledge about geography and inhabitants of the areas.
Every expedition had 1 priest, who hoped to convert Natives to Christianity.


Establishing Royal Government

Once conquest had taken place, settlements were established and land cultivated. Effective Government was needed.
-Charles wanted to stop Conquistadors becoming too powerful and independent.
1524: Council of the Indies set up, made up of Letrados & became main authority over affairs in the New World.
-Made laws and acted as Supreme Court of Appeal.

-Spanish Viceroys appointed for Mexico and Peru, safeguards brought in to stop them becoming too powerful.
-Viceroys subjected to review of their conduct.

System was overall quite effective.


Religious Policies

*Charles able to oversee Church appointments in New
World without Papal interference.
*Conversion of Natives Important.
*Number of priests brought in to convert them
-Between 1524-1536, around 3 Million conversions recorded in Mexico alone.


Treatment Of Native Indians

Spanish Crown wanted a just system for treatment of natives.
-Actions of Las Casas led to New Laws of 1542: Forbade all forms of Indian Slavery and granting of new Encomiendas (Grant of land and Natives).
-Any Colonists found guilty of mistreating Indians would lose their Encomienda.

View of Spanish was that natives were inferior, Despite actions taken by Spanish Crown, a large number of Indians died.
E.g. In Central Mexico: Population declined from 25.2 Million 1518, to 2.65 Million in 1568.


Social And Economic Impact On Spain

Indies provided market for: Cloth, Oil and Wine.
New Products: Chocolate, Pineapple, Tomato, Rubber and various types of Wood.

Most important was Silver and Gold, transported over to Spain.
Large increase in Silver after discovery of silver mines in Potosì 1545.

Colonists paid taxes and Crown took a 5th of all Silver and Gold brought into Spain.