France Flashcards Preview

Wine Appreciation > France > Flashcards

Flashcards in France Deck (27):
1

amount of wine imported for consumption

3%

2

per capita consumption

18 gal

3

wine grape 1st planted

southern France by Greek traders, 600 BC

Roman invasion of Gaul spread viticulture and viniculture

4

Middle Ages

fall of Roman Empire - Renaissance in AD 1450, churches kept viticulture and enology alive in Gaul and the rest of Europe

During this time, wine was France's most important exports.

5

Charlemange

roi des Francs à partir de 768; devient par conquête roi des Lombards en 774; couronné empereur à Rome par le pape Léon III le 25 décembre 800

brought stability to Gaul; introduced 1st wine laws, encouraged wine exportation

  • no more stumping by feet --> wine press
  • no more animal skin containers --> cooperage

6

1152

Eleanor (Aliénor) of Aquitaine

+

Henri of Anjou (later English King Henry II)

active exchange of wine and other goods; English began long-lasting appreciation of Bordeaux wines

7

the Dutch

shipment of Bordeaux wines to other northern ports, eg. Amsterdam

8

primogeniture

长子继承权, Napoleonic Code abolished it after French Revolution (1789-1791)

now all children of a landowner, including daughters, inherit equal amounts

did not affect quality / popularity of French wines

9

late 1800s

introduction of phylloxera when avid botanists in Victorian England collected specimens of American vines in the 1850s

devastated vineyards in Britain and then moved to the European mainland

10

origion of AOC

fraud became evident early 1890s

certain French place-names acquired panache, international demand rose

1911, riots, grape growers in Champagne --> gov. decree: the name "Champagne" can only be used if all grapes used are from there

11

revolution, Châteauneuf-du-Pape

沙托纳迪帕普,  une commune française, située dans le département de Vaucluse et la région Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

during Avignon papacy, John XXII built summer palace outside the city, on foundations of an old castle, tended to the old vineyard, began wine production in this region

red wine, after WWI, 1923, similar to 1911 Chamgpagne riots, est. grape varietals and techniques allowed, became model for national system

12

négociant

a merchant who acts as middleman b/t grape growers, producers, shippers

during Great Depression, bought cheaper grapes from outside areas, sold wine as sth far more expensive than merited

13

INAO

Institut national des appellations d'origine (des vins et eaux-de-vie)

est. 1935, under Ministry of Agriculture

since 2007: Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité

14

terroir

  • soil
  • sun exposure
  • drainage of air & water
  • shelter from elements (eg. wind, rain)

15

AOC

> 1/3 national production

  • 100% approved grapes
  • all grown w/i limited zone
  • grapes picked at minimum sugar level; reach minimal must weight & alcohol level
  • limit on yield per hectare
  • approved methods: viticulture, viniculture
  • wine bottled in the same AOC
  • tasting test INAO, not necesarrily quality, but reflects character of AOC

16

grand / premier cru

w/i an AOC, rated vineyards w particularly impressive quality

17

QWPSR

Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region

EU designation for VDQS and AOC / AOP wines; production method, management, geographical locations

fundamental role: differentiating quality wines from table wines

18

French Wine Laws

NOT to guarantee quality, but rather, making sure wines carrying a region's name be typical of that region

protects grower / producer more than consumer

19

blend

vs

single varietal

blends: Mediterranean influenced zones

single varietal: cooler, continentally influenced regions

20

typical bottle shapes

A image thumb
21

cave (coopérative)

co-operated winery

22

récolte

vintage

23

récoltant

vine-grower (and, outside France, winemaker)

24

domaine

vineyard holding, Burgundy's generally smaller-scale answer to château

25

propriétaire-récoltant

owner-vine-grower

26

Quality Designations

  • Appllation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) = EU's AOP; regulated in geographical origin, varietal make-up, production methods
  • Indication Géographique Protégée (IGP): replacing Vin de Pays; non-traditional variaties and higher yields allowed
  • Vin / Vin de France: replacing Vin de Table; variety and vintage may be stated

27

millésime

vintage year