Freshwater Fish (lecture 3b) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Freshwater Fish (lecture 3b) Deck (13):
1

assessing biodiversity

use field guide or biological key to figure out what you found

could be cryptic specie

use genetic analysis

2

cryptic specie

-looks the same in your hand but is actually isolated

3

genetic analysis

-take apart different species by looking at the nucleotides

4

steps to assessing biodiversity

-collect fish
-create bush lab
-extract and send DNA to lab to get raw DNA
-receive a DNA sequence
-used to create evolutionary tree
-each red arrow is a distinct specie

5

grunters

-11 new species
-haven't been found since no one has looked at Kimberley
-increased by 6% since research

6

Investigate biogeographic patterns of the Kimberley -methods

-describe patterns of change in community structure (composition and abundance)

-describe patterns of richness and endermism

-use geological, climate, and and bathymetric data to help explain:community patterns and drivers of evolution

7

Compare reproductive and early life-history ecology of congeneric pairs of range restricted and wide spread Kimberly fishes-methods

-sample during wet and dry seasons
-gonads used to determine:
-sex ratios
-relative fecundity
-egg size

otoliths-ear bones(used for orientation and form at day increments) used to determine:
-age
-spawning window
-larval growth rate
-age at maturity

8

Compare gene flow, population connectivity, and population genetic structure in congeneric species pairs

-sequence the large sections of the target genome

-develop genetic markers (microsatellites)

-use the markers to determine:
-gene flow and population genetic structuring
-genetic diversity
-population history (genetic bottlenecks)

9

genetic diversity

-variety of genes in a particular population

-males have distinct genes to reflect the environment in which it has adapted into

-metapopulation

-poorly mixed and isolated population more likely to be extinct with the isolated pop having a higher chance of being effected

10

metapopulation

-share the genes that worked best from past populations

11

bottlenecks

-catastrophic event reduce size in population and genetic diversity taking a lot of time to recover

ex.
caused by things like a drought

12

population range

-range restricted will be experiencing low gene flow and diversity

-widespread will experience the opposite

13

What's the point?

-If we don't know it's there we can't protect it

-understanding patterns in biodiversity helps to focus to conservation measures
-look at what regions require the most attention-bullet two

-understanding dispersal and population genetics helps to prioritise 'at risk' species
-fine tune conservation methods to the species that are most at risk