Fuel use 2: Counter regulation and diabetes Flashcards Preview

E: Regulatory Physiology & Pharmacology > Fuel use 2: Counter regulation and diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fuel use 2: Counter regulation and diabetes Deck (22):
1

When there is high levels of glucose in the blood?

Pancrease produces insulin

Increase glycogen synthesis in liver and increase glucose uptake into cells.

Glucose now falls down to normal range

2

When there is a low level of glucose in the body?

Stimulates the secretion of glucagon from the paancreas

This increases the glycogen breakdown to glucose in the liver

Rising the glucose levels back to normal

3

Glucagon action?

Glucagon opposes many of the regulatory effecst of insulin through its own secondary messenger cAMP.

Increase glycogenolysis

Increase glucneogenesis 

Suppresses glycolysis

4

Glycogenolysis?

Breakdown of glycogen into glucose in the liver

5

Schematic of glucagon action

See additional sheet

6

What hormones are activated when there is a decrease in blood glucose levels?

Glucagon

Epinephrine

Growth hormones

Cortisol

7

What hormones are produced when there is a high blood glucose level?

Only insulin

8

What does glucagon do to the futile cycling?

Induces phosphorylation of FBPase-2

Therefore higher F6P than F26P

No longer is the gluconeogenesis suppresses

9

Diabetes metllitus?

Most common of all endocrine disorders

Hyperglycaemia is the major feature of this condition.

Glucosuria

There is a high extracellular glucose level but a intracellular glucose deficiency

10

Hyperglycaemia?>

Increase in blood glucose levels

16mmol/l

11

Glucosuria?

Glucose in the urine with large osmotic diuresis 

ie. high glucose concentration for the volume of water.

Looks very concentrated- like it would if you were dehydrated and has a sweet taste due to the high levels of glucose

12

What are the two WHO tests to test for diabetes?

FPG: the basal blood glucose levels: need to be >7mmol/l 

OGTT: fast the patient and then dose them with 75g of glucose and see how long it takes them to dispose of glucose. Should be equal or greater than 11.1mmol/l after 2hrs

13

What are two WHO criteria for diabetes?

IGT: impaired glucose tolerance. FPG comes back below 9mmol/l, OGTT is greater tha 8.7 but lower than 11.1.

IFG: impaired fasting glucose: FBG (fasting blood glucose level) between 6.1 and 7mmol/l

14

What are IGT and IFG sufferers at risk of?

Cardiovascular disease

Diabetes

15

What are the FBG and OGTT levels during pregnancy?

GBG: >5.1mmol/l

OGTT: >8.5mmol/l 

16

hBA1C?

Diagnosis test for diabetes

diabetes will be >6.5% while people with pre-diabetes will have between 5.7-6.4%

17

Type 1 diabetes definition?

It is when the pancreatic beta cells are destroyed and no longer can produce insulin.

Insulin is required for survival.

Usually characterised by the presence of anti-GAD (anti-islet cell antibodies)

Autoimmune.

18

Type 2 diabetes definiution?

Only when they dont have T1, monogenic or other medical condition that is suggestive of secondary diabetes.

90% of the sufferers of T2 are obese.

It is when there is enough insulin in the body but the cells are no responsive to them

19

MODY?

Monogenic diabetes.

Maturity onset diabetes of the young.

When there is a mutation in a single gene of the diabetic person that effect insulin (either production or effect)

MODY: is the most common mutation in the HNF1A gene.

20

Secondary causes of diabetes?

eg. drugs, pancreatic pathology, endocrine cause.

 

21

Hyperlipidaemia?

When does this happen?

Elevated levels of lipids in the blood plasma.

Happens if the person have T2DM.

Insulin no longer suppresses hormonal expression therefore always high levels of VLDL expression causing the lipoprotein lipase to constantly converted glucose into fatty acids and glycerol 

22

What are the 3 different forms of MODY diabetes?

65% are transcription factors mutations- progressive- no sudden onset

20% are glucokinase mutations- relatively stable.

15% are due to MODYX mutation