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ATAR Physical Education yr 11 > functional anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in functional anatomy Deck (23)
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1

what is the difference bettween fast and slow twitch fibers (8 for each)

slow
- red
- slow
- low force production
- there fiber diameter is small
- they are resistant to fatigue
- there type of activity is aerobic
-they have a high capillary density
-there major fuel source are triglycerides and glycogen

fast
-white
-fast
-high forces production
-large fiber diameter
-they have no resistance to fatigue
-there activity type is aerobic
they have a low capillary density
- there major fuel source is certatin phosphate and glycogen

2

what is an origin and an insertion point

-is the part off the body which does not move when the muscles contract
- and it is attached to the bone closest to the mid line off the body

insertion
-the intersection which is attached to the bone which moves more when the the muscles contracts
- it is further away from the midline off the body

3

what is an agonist and antagonist pair

agonist
- the muscel which is responsible for the movement it is also the muscel which moves towards the movement
antagonist
relaxes too allow the movement to occur
-

4

name the agonist and antagonist in a bicep curl and a tricep extension

bicep curl- bicep agonist/ tricep antagonist
tricep extension- bicep antagonist/ triceps agonist

5

what is the role off a fixator (stabilisor)

fixators are involved in contractions by stabilizing the body whilst another body part is moving for example when trapezius stabilizes the scapula during a bicep curl by locking it into place this provides a nice ridged space for the biceps too pull in order too raise the bar

6

what are the the origin and insertion points for these muscles biceps triceps gastrocnemius trapezius deltoid quadriceps hamstrings

bicep/ origin scapula / insertion ulna and radius
triceps / origin scapula and hummers / insertion ulna
gastrocnemius / origin femur / insertion tarsals
trapezius / origin skull and vertebrae / insertion insertion scapula and clavicle
deltoid / origin clavicle and scapula / insertion hummers
quadriceps origin femur and pelvis / insertion tibia
hamstrings origin femur pelvis / insertion tibia

7

What is the function off blood and what are 4 components off blood and functions

Blood is the fluid that transports nutrients and wastes through the circulatory system

Plasma watery part off the blood made up off suspended substances
White blood cells Moves too sites off infection destroying bacteria and disease causing organisms
Red blood cells transports nutrients and oxygen carbon dioxide and waste products
Platelets responsible for blood clotting

8

what is the role of the circulatory system

Its primary role is to provide essential nutrients, minerals, and hormones to various parts of the body

Circulate blood to body
Transport O2, water and nutrients to cells in the blood
Transport CO2 and wastes away from the cells
Maintain body temperature
White blood cells fight infection

9

explain the structure and function of the heart

Muscular pump which contracts continuously to drive blood around the body through the blood vessels
About the size of your fist, pear shaped
Protected by the ribs, sternum and vertebral column
Heart is separated into 2 sides, consisting of 4 chambers
Left atrium (receives oxygenated blood)
Right atrium (receives deoxygenated blood)
Left ventricle (pumps oxygenated blood)
Right ventricle (pumps deoxygenated blood)

10

explain the circulation of blood through the heart

The Right Atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body (via the Vena Cavae) and pumps it to the lungs via the Right Ventricle (through the Pulmonary Artery) where it offloads the carbon dioxide and takes in oxygen.

This oxygenated blood then returns to the Left Atrium (via the Pulmonary Vein) and is pumped to the rest of the body by the Left Ventricle (via the Aorta)

Valves are located between the atrium and ventricles which ensure blood flows in only one direction – from the atrium to the ventricles.

11

explain the roles of blood vessels

Responsible for carrying blood from the heart, taking it to different parts of the body and then returning it to the heart.

ARTERIES:
Carry blood away from the heart
Blood is pushed through the arteries caused by contractions of the heart
Flow or surge of blood through the arteries with each heart beat can be felt near the surface of the skin – this is referred to as the PULSE

VEINS:
Carry blood towards the heart
Valves which allow the return of blood to the heart, but prevent the back flow of blood

CAPILLARIES:
Tiny blood vessel which reach every cell of the body
Allow the passing of oxygen to tissues and removal of carbon dioxide

12

explain the structure of the 3 blood vessels

arteries
thick muscular walls with no valves and carry high blood pressure blood

veins
thin collapsible walls with valves present and have blood with low BP

capillaries
very thin walls only one cell thin walls which branch from arterioles and venioles too form a network

13

what are the functions of the respritory system

Deliver oxygen from the atmosphere to the lungs
Provide method of gaseous exchange within the lungs
Oxygen enters the blood, carbon dioxide exits
Create speech as air passes over the vocal cords
Facilitate sense of smell
Expel heat and water vapor in the air breathed out

14

what are the functions of the respritory system

Deliver oxygen from the atmosphere to the lungs
Provide method of gaseous exchange within the lungs
Oxygen enters the blood, carbon dioxide exits
Create speech as air passes over the vocal cords
Facilitate sense of smell
Expel heat and water vapor in the air breathed out

15

explain the structure and function of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli

Nasal cavity & mouth
Where the air enters the respiratory system
Pharynx
Where the back of the mouth and nose meet
Larynx
Produces sound when air passes over the larynx
Trachea
Assists with air delivery. Also known as wind pipe.
Bronchi
2 tubes that provide air to the lungs
Bronchioles
Each bronchus subdivides into smaller branches called bronchioles
Alveoli
Cup shaped sacs found at the end of bronchioles
Surrounded by capillaries, they provide the site for continual exchange of 02 and CO2
This occurs by the process of diffusion – the movement of gas from an area of high concentration to low concentration

16

explain the structure and function off the lungs

Located within the thoracic cavity and protected by the sternum, ribs and vertebral column
They contain the bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli
Gas exchange occurs at the site of the alveoli

17

explain the exchange of co2 and oxygen

When we inhale, O2 moves through the lungs and into the alveoli where it diffuses into the blood to be transported to the tissues
Gas exchange takes place due to a concentration difference called a concentration gradient
The alveoli has a high concentration of O2
The venous blood capillary has a low concentration of O2
This concentration differential between the alveoli and venous capillaries causes O2 to move from the alveoli into the blood capillary (from an area of high to low concentration).

18

explain why the avioli is so efficient

Alveoli features that allow efficient gas exchange to occur:
Large surface area to volume ratio - so lots of opportunity for gas exchange to occur
Surrounded by capillaries – to allow for gas exchange to occur efficiently into the blood
Very thin walls – to promote diffusion of gases

19

explain the structure and function of the diaphragm

Involuntary or smooth muscle that contracts and relaxes to aid breathing at all times
As the diaphragm moves up and down, the size of the chest cavity changes, causing breathing

20

explain the prosses of inspiration

INSPIRATION (breathing in)
Volume of lungs increases
External intercostal muscles contract & internal intercostal muscles relax to lift rib cage up and the diaphragm contracts to become flatter (this causes a larger volume and thus an area of low pressure)
Air enters the lungs moving from area of high pressure to low pressure

21

explain the prosses of expiration

EXPIRATION (breathing out)
Volume of lungs decreases
External intercostal muscles relax and internal intercostal muscles contract to lower rib cage and diaphragm relaxes to become dome shaped (this causes a smaller volume and thus an area of high pressure)
Air exits the lungs from an area of high pressure to low.

22

explain the 4 characteristics of muscles

excitability: The ability to contract in response to chemical and/or electrical signals

extendibility: The capacity of a muscle to stretch beyond its normal resting length

contractability: The ability of a muscle to contract or shorten

elasticity: The ability of a muscle to return to the original resting length after it has been stretched

23

explain: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, supernation, pronation, rotation, planter flexion and dorsi flexion

flexion: Results in joint angle decreasing
extension: Results in joint angle increasing

ABDUCTION
Movement away from the midline of the body (arms and legs)

ADDUCTION
Movement towards the midline of the body (arms and legs)

ROTATION
A motion that occurs when a part turns on its axis.
E.g. The leg rotates on the hip, the head rotates on the neck

CIRCUMDUCTION
The circular movement of a limb

PRONATION
In the forearm, refers to the
turning of the forearm and hand
so that the palm is facing down.

SUPINATION
In the forearm, refers to the
turning of the forearm and hand
so that the palm is facing up.

DORSI FLEXION
Movement which decreases the angle between the foot and the leg, so that the toes are brought closer to the shin.

PLANTAR FLEXION
Movement which increases the angle between the foot and the leg, so that the toes are taken further away from the shin