Functional Properties Flashcards Preview

National 5 Health And Food Technology Notes > Functional Properties > Flashcards

Flashcards in Functional Properties Deck (137):

What is aeration

Whisking eggs
Milk can introduce steam when used in batter
A raising agent such as yeast introduces carbon dioxide


What is coagulation

Egg can be changed from a liquid into a soft, semisolid or solid mass when heated


What is emulsifying

Some foods do not mix such as oil and water an emulsifier will help the ingredients combine


What is binding

Eggs will bind a burger together when the food is heated and the egg coagulates


Why do scrambled eggs need to be cooked slowly

Become tough and liquid appears as the proteins within the egg shrink and the liquid is squeezed out


Describe gelatinisation

When starch is mixed with a liquid and then heated the starch granules swell and burst and thicken the liquid


Describe fermentation

Yeast is converted to carbon dioxide and alcohol which helps the dough rise when making bread


What is shortening

Ingredients such as fats and oils help to shorten a flour mixture and make it crisp or crumbly in texture


What is bulking

Foods can be used to give form the main part of the finished product


What is dextrinisation

When starch is subjected to dry heat it changes to a golden brown colour


What is crystallisation

When sugar and water are boiled the water is driven off the concentration becomes higher and eventually a thick sticky syrup is formed when set very fine crystals develop


What is caramelisation

Sugar helps to colour products such as the top of cakes by caramelising in the heat of an oven
When sugar is heated in a liquid or when used as a topping it begins to caramelise and turn brown due to heat


Describe creaming

Fat and caster sugar are creamed together until they form a foam air is trapped in the mixture in tiny bubbles which makes the mixture lighter and helps the cake rise


Describe rubbing in

Fat is rubbed into the flour and coats the flour particles the mixture forms a waterproof barrier but also traps air


What happens if you decrease sugar in a product

Gives less flavour
Gives poorer keeping qualities
Gives a paler colour
Prevents cake from rising


What happens if you increase sugar in a product

Longer cooking time which gives foods a darker colour
Sugary crunchy texture
Very soft mixtures during baking which become hard when cool
Sweeter result
Result in cake sinking in the middle as the gluten has been over softened so that it collapses
Fruit can sink as the structure will collapse


What can happen when reducing fat

Paler colour
Pastry being tough and hard
Texture of scones and cakes not being so soft and moist
Less flavour in scones and cakes
Baked items not keeping well and becoming stale quickly


What can happen when increasing fat

Greasy flavour and texture in cakes and pastry
Darker colour
Richer flavour
Pastry being very crumbly and easily broken


What happens when adding too little liquid

Cakes have a dry texture
Shortcrust pastry being easily broken and crumbly
Scone bread having a heavy texture and not rising very quickly and well


What happens when too much liquid

Hard and tough shortcrust pastry
Fruit sinking in a fruit cake if the mixture is too wet
Cakes have a heavy doughy texture and top may be cracked
Scone dough being too soft and spreading so losing shape during cooking
Dough being sticky to handle
Bread having a coarse and open texture


Concept generation

Identify gaps in the market
Using market analysis to trial existing products to find out what makes them popular
Identify changes that could be made to existing products
Cost portion size flavour appearance texture and prep all considered
Cannot go further


Concept screening

Allow production process to move away from initial ideas to actual development possibilities
Developing a specification
Taking forward best ideas to next stage
Analysis of all ideas from thinking stage and prioritising them
Discarding any ideas might be costly difficult to process or do not meet all requirements of specification


Prototype production

Make any changes if required to prototype
Ensuring product will meet needs of target group
Making up examples or specimens of what product will look like
May be more than one prototype


Product testing

Using opinions gained to either eliminate or make refinements to product
Trialling prototypes with a range of consumers through use of tasting panels
Allows product to be tested on consumers and opinions used to move product onto next stage


Product launch

Product now on sale
Market monitoring sales figures are checked very carefully when product is launched


First production run

Quality assurance team tests production run for quality and standard of product
New product is produced for first time as a full production run so item can be assessed


Marketing plan

Packaging finalised and selling price agreed
Advertising campaign is developed to promote product
Decisions made where product will be sold
Promotional activities decided


Why do trading officers use disassembly

Check that manufacturers are meeting legal requirements and packaging claims


Why do manufactures use disassembly

Ensure quality and that product remains at its best during storage purchase and use
Find out more information about how a food product had been designed


What can disassembly tell us

Cost of product
Function of ingredients used
How product is assembled
Type of packaging used


What is food poisoning

The bacteria multiply in the food before it is eaten


What is food borne diseases

Only a few bacteria need to be eaten and then multiply in the stomach and intestine


Reasons for food poisoning

Farming/ food production
Eating outside home
Shopping for food
More income available
Preparing food in the home of


What is market research

Activity of collecting and studying information about what people want need and buy


Why do manufacturers use market research

To find out
If there is a gap in the market
What competition there is from other manufacturers


When is market research carried out

After the launch of a new product
Before development of a new product
Throughout development of a new product


What are benefits of market research

It helps manufacturers keep track of market trends
It helps food businesses plan how to promote and advertise a product


Carrying out market research

Identify gap in the market and the target group
Brainstorm information you want to find out
Indenting most appropriate investigative techniques to use


Sensory testing

Use separate booths with the same level of lighting
Good hygiene no consumers with cold or infection
Label the food with numbers or letters
Have water available during testing


Preference test

Are used to supply information about people likes and dislikes for a food product


Ranking test

Rank in sequence of preference a range of similar food products


Rating test

Show how much they like or dislike several aspects of a selection of products using a scale of 1-5 or 1-9


Taste threshold test

Test sensitivity to a particular taste identifying where it's weak or to strong


Triangle test

Identify which of the 3 samples is the odd one out 2 of which are the same


Paired comparison

Compare 2 samples for a specific characteristic


Discrimination test

Used to find out difference between different products
Difference in amounts of ingredients used if they are changed


Info taste threshold gives manufacturer

Find out minimum concentration of an ingredient before the product becomes an acceptable level


Info triangle gives manufacturer

Find out if consumers can identify the product on test from 2 other similar products
Find out how similar/ different the product on test is from other 2 identical products


Info paired comparison gives manufacturer

Helps manufacture test Adaptations to their product
Find out if tasters can tell the difference in amounts of ingredients are changed


Info rating test gives manufacturer

Identifies specific strength/ weaknesses in a product
Collects info/ opinions about specific characteristics of a product
Allows changed to be made to specific characteristics based on results


Info ranking test gives manufacturer

Make judgements about product in relation to one characteristic
Find out how much consumer likes or dislikes a food product


Main factors which may influence food choice

Peer pressure
Likes and dislikes
Nutritional knowledge


Budget available

Not high fat or sugary foods may be chosen if budget is limited as these are popular and will not go to waste
May choose shops own budget range of food which is cheaper than named brands
Amount of fruit and veg being bought may be reduced as they are expensive and if not eaten they are wasted
Healthier alternatives to everyday foods may be too expensive for families on a limited income


Online/ internet shopping

Saves time when they are busy
Useful for housebound and disabled people
Allows consumer to compare prices in the comfort of their own home
Delivery charged are added which increases cost



Lack of practical food preparation skills may lead to more takeaway or convenience foods being bought
Increasing range of take away and fast food outlets which produce a large selection of ready to eat foods for consumers
Snacking and grazing are common throughout the day as consumers want food that is easily consumed throughout the day
Families may choose to eat out more often as many food outlets have money off vouchers


Working hours

Mothers may work so may choose foods that children can prepare for themselves
Families don't sit down together for a meal
Workers can quickly microwave frozen or cook-chill meals when they come home or they can take them to work
Can result in families eating at different times of the day and as a result more convenience foods may be bought


Nutritional knowledge

Consumers with little knowledge ma choose less healthy options which may increase their risk of developing dietary diseases
Some nutritional knowledge may be difficult to understand and lead to unhealthy choices
Traffic light system and guideline daily amounts may help some consumers make healthier choices
Manufactures produce many healthy options which can be confusing as they may be low in fat but high in sugar


Special dietary needs

Diet related diseases
Food intolerances or allergies
Dietary needs of individuals at different stages of their lives



Cow is considered a scared animal so Hindus will not eat beef pigs are considered unclean do pork is not eaten either



Forbidden to eat pork and animals have to be ritually slaughtered by a process known as halal



Only eat kosher meats meat slaughtered in a special way and are forbidden from eating shellfish


Travel and knowledge of world cuisine

Increased range of ethnic foods and restaurants gives customers more variety
Increase in travel both at home and abroad may encourage people to be more adventurous in their eating habits


Likes and dislikes

Foods may look smells and taste good so consumer will be more likely to try it
As many products are available in single portions individual likes within families can also be catered for useful for someone who is vegetarian


Peer pressure

Consumers may choose different foods for their peers to show individuality
Children often choose same foods as their peers to fit in with their friends likes and dislikes


Advertising and media

Television has biggest influence on food choice
Manufactures will target their products at certain group can be done in several ways such as
Free toys and games with children food products
Humorous catchy and daily remembered adverts
Celebrities cartoon characters or jingles to promote food products


What is factory farming

Term used to describe a farm which operated like a factory rather than like a farm where animals are reared naturally
Aim of factory farming is to produce largest quantity as cheaply as possible
Many animals are crammed together in a small space where feeding watering and cleaning of waste are done automatically


Why consumers may choose factory farmed produce

Foods produced can be cheaper
Consumers are unaware of the conditions animals are reared in


Why consumers may not choose factory farmed produce

Concerned about
Animal welfare due to conditions they are kept in
Possible animal diseases spreading which can be passed on to humans
Use of antibiotics pesticides and growth hormones may find their way into human food chains


What are farmers markets

Open air markets where farmers sell fresh locally grown produce
Some consumers prefer to buy food from these local markets where animal care has been considered such as free range eggs
More continental themed food markets being introduced allowing consumers to try food from other countries


Why consumers may choose food from farmers markets

Range of healthy local fresh produce
Less food miles as produce is local
Amount of packaging is reduced


Why consumers may not choose food from farmers markets

Foods may be more expensive
Some foods may not be available it depends on the time of year


Why consumers may not choose grow their own food in allotments

Lack of knowledge skills time or interest in growing their own food


Why consumers may choose to grow their own food in allotments

Cheaper to grow your own than buy from a supermarket
Can be a great hobby
More nutritious
Fruit, veg and herbs are much fresher


Against GM foods

No one knows long term effect on human body
Strict vegetarians would object to eating foods which contain animal genes


For GM foods

Can help preserve food
Gives consumer more choice
Nutritional value may be improved


Why consumers may not choose organic foods

More expensive
Some people believe there is no nutritional knowledge is gained
Appearance may be less attractive


Why consumers may choose organic foods

Believe they taste better
May be more nutritious
Less harm is caused to the environment


Advantages of glass

Can be transparent so contents can be seen
Made in a variety of shapes and sizes does not react with food


Disadvantages of glass

Easily broken
Heavy to carry home


Disadvantages of paper or cardboard

Crushes or tears easily
Does not protect food from moisture


advantages of paper or cardboard

Light to carry home
Can be printed on easily
Can be reasonably strong depending on quality


Advantages of metal, aluminium and steel tins

Strong and rigid
Can be printed on easily
Good barrier to moisture and gases
Tin foil is strong and can be mounded round awkward shapes of food


Disadvantages of metal, aluminium and steel tins

Can be heavy to carry home
Tin cans for acidic food must be coated on the inside to prevent a reaction


Advantages of plastic

Can be used in a microwave
Made in a variety of shapes and sizes
Lightweight but reasonably strong


Disadvantages of plastic

Cling film is not very strong , hard to use and can not be recycled
As to be sorted into different types before recycling, some types are not recycable


Glass symbol

Shows the product can be put in a bottle bank to be recycled
Glass can be used again to make new glass which is cheaper to produce


Aluminium symbol

Recyclable aluminium is more environmentally friendly and will help reduce costs for future consumers
This is cheaper than starting from new and helps conserve energy


Tidy man symbol

Used to encourage people to recycle and dispose of in a bin to protect the environment


Plastic symbol

Various types of plastic are available
The type of plastic is identified below the triangle


Paper or card packaging

Means product or part of it can be recycled


On pack recycling label scheme

Aims to deliver a simpler uk wide consistent recycling message on both retailer private label and brand owner packaging to help consumers recycle more material more often


What is fairtrade

Improve wages and working conditions of workers ind enveloping countries who produce the goods


For fairtrade

Quality of foods can be better because fair traders consider the environment
Fairtrade mark is clearly marked on food products to help consumers with their choice
Range of food products


Against fairtrade

Some shops stock a limited range of fairtrade products so the consume has less choice
Some products tend to be expensive and some consumers may not be able to afford them
Very food miles are used as they come from far off countries


What are E numbers

Natural or synthetic substances which are added in small quantities to foods during manufacture


Advantages of additives

Nutrients such as vitamins are now added making them more nutritious
Appearance taste and smell of food is improved
Less food wastage as contamination by bacteria is reduced


Disadvantages additives

Some type of additives cause hyperactivity in children
Health concerns about long term use of some additives



Help to keep food safer for longer by protecting it from micro organisms such as bacteria
Shelf life is longer so prevents wastage of food for consumers and retailers
All manufacturers to transport food in bulk which is cheaper and keeps cost down for consumers



Prevent fatty foods from becoming rancid
Gives foods a longer shelf life by protecting against deterioration caused by exposure to air



Replace colour in foods which may be lost during processing so improving appearance making it more suitable for consumers
Improve natural colour of certain foods to make them more attractive
Can cause hyperactivity
Allergic reactions or irritate suffers of eczema or asthma may occur


Emulsifiers and stabilisers

Prevent ingredients separating and gives a smooth creamy product as these allow fats and oils to mix with water so reducing the fat content
Emulsifiers help improve the shelf life of baked goods



Added to food in small amounts to improve taste and smell


What are sweeteners

Added to products to reduce sugar and calorie content so would be helpful to people who are trying to lose weight


What is chilled products

Prepared food that is stored at refrigeration temperatures which are at or below 8 degrees Celsius to prevent bacteria multiplying


What are cool/ chill products

Foods include trash meals and desserts they are cooked in the factory and then chilled in blast chillers to remove the heat quickly and prevent the growth of bacteria


Advantages chilled and cook chill products

Can work out cheaper than buying individual ingredients to make the same dish good for students and people living on low incomes
Many cook chill meals can be frozen at home to save on shopping time and are good for emergencies


Disadvantages chilling and cook chill products

If you can cook chill meals for a number of people then they can work out more expensive than cooking from scratch
cook chill food must be thoroughly reheated to 82°C destroy bacteria and prevent food poisoning


What are UHT products

UHT is a sterilising process in which foods are rapidly heated to approximately 140°C and held at that temperature for a few seconds to kill any bacteria present
The products are then quickly cooled and packed


How could consumers food choice be affected with UHT products

Longer shelf life allows them to be stored for longer
Handy to have in the store cupboard in case of emergencies
Contains different from flash so some consumers may not like the flavour


What is MAP

Manufactures can change the type of gas inside packaging to improve shelflife map the place is north of oxygen and parts of carbon day outside and nitrogen
The growth of bacteria and microorganisms are slowed down because oxygen has been removed


How could consumers food choices be affected with MAP

Better quality food has to be used
Amount of packaging used may be an environmental concern for consumers
Product can be seen through the packaging before buying
Correct storage instructions have to be followed after opening to prevent the food spoiling and being wasted


Why are barcodes useful to the consumer

They speed up payment at the point of sale
Less chance of being wrong Lee charged
Better stock control for the supermarket
Consumers can self scan products at the checkout


How does the ASA protect consumers interests

It's investigate complaints about food advertise mints
Monitors food advertise meant
It takes action against misleading harmful or offensive advertise meant sales promotions and I like marking of food products


What types of advertising do ASA deal with

Magazine and newspaper advertise meant
Video and TV commercials
Television shopping channels
Leaflets and brochures
Cinema commercials


How does trading standards protect consumers interests

Will check factories shops pubs and market for accurate weights and measures in food products and drinks
Food labelling is accurate with regard to the composition of the product
Traders do not falsely describe either by word or in writing any products or services they are selling


What is which

A non-profit making organisation that works to make things better for the consumer used to be known as the consumers Association


How does which protect consumers interests

Offer information and advice to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and health related topics
Test food products appliances food services
By carrying out investigations into a range of services linked to the food industry and then award in Best Buy and recommended to products to help consumers make choices


How does environmental health officers protect consumers interests

Investigate consumer complaints of personal hygiene and other problems with food businesses
Inspect local food businesses to check the food hygiene regulations are being followed by
Inspecting food to see if it is safe and the chances are content with that isn't
Takeaway food samples to be tested make videos to record what they see
Investigate consumer complaints of unsatisfactory food or food that is unfit for human consumption


What will the EHD want to know

If the consumer has bought are being served food that was in fact to eat has been damaged by past our contained items it shouldn't have but I've been offered food that was past its use by date has been saying bad hygiene practices in a food shop a restaurant been ill after eating out


What is EHD

Environmental health department employs environmental health officers to protect the interest of the consumer


What is FSA

An independent government department responsible for food safety and hygiene across the UK
The agency that I clearly consult with consumers to understand their views and concerns about food related issues


What how does FSA protect consumers interests

Give advice about the nutrient content of food and data issues
Help people to eat more healthily by providing information on healthy eating matters
Help promote accurate and clear food labelling helping consumers make informed choices


What is Statutory food labelling

Compulsory information that has to be on the label by law


What is voluntary food labelling

This information is supplied voluntarily by manufacturers to give consumers a little more information about the product


The name of the food product and are a description of what the product is how can this affect consumers food choices

Statutory information
Consumers will know exactly what the food is
They can take into account of likes and dislikes
I will inform them if the food has been processed in anyway


How does the list of ingredients that consumers food choices

Statutory information
Consumable know exactly all the ingredients in the product and their proportions
People with allergies the ingredients will rest their allergen so these can easily be avoided
Some consumers may be allergic to certain additives I need to know their present in a food


How does Date marking affect consumers food choices

Gives information on how to store the food properly and safely
Let the consumer know when the food should be eaten by reducing their risk of food poisoning


Use bye

Use on highly palatable foods
Food rather come a food poisoning rest of it and after the stated date
Could I freeze anything with before the use by date without wastage
Check the packaging to make sure the food can be frozen sometimes foods have been pre-frozen especially shellfish


Best before

Is the date at which the manufacturers expect food to remain at Top quality if stored correctly


Name and address how does this affect consumer choice of food

May be needed in case of complaint
Consumers may be more inclined to buy products from manufacturers to have a good reputation for quality


Weight and volume how will this affect the consumers choice of foods

Helps the consumer to work out value for money and compare products
A lot of people talk to good Khaled E mark this means that the average quantity must be accurate but the weight of each pack may very slightly


How well place of origin affect consumers food choices

Some consumers may not buy products from certain countries on Moral or political grounds


How will storage instructions affect consumers choice of food

This tells the consumer how and where to store the food to ensure that remain safe to eat and at its best


How will instructions for use/cooking affect consumers choice of foods

Helps to ensure that foods are correctly prepared and cooked to prevent food poisoning
Let consumer know if they have the time skills and equipment to prepare the food


Nutritional knowledge

Usually gives the proportion of protein and fat carbohydrates vitamins and minerals and the energy values
Some labels have a further breakdown of this group such as the different types of carbohydrates and fats they also give information about the sodium and fibre content



Guideline daily amount
Voluntarily food labelling
A guide to what people can consume each day for the healthy balance diet
Label shows the number of calories and amount of sugar is that saturates and salt the portion of food in grams


Traffic light labelling

Voluntarily Food
To make food labelling simpler and easier to read at a glance food standards agency has approved traffic light labels which indicate whether food has high medium or low amount of fat saturated fat sugar and salt