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Flashcards in Functions Deck (34):
1

what does the vagal reflex inhibit

smooth muscle tone

2

where are mechanoreceptors found for fundic relaxation

lower oesophagus
fundic area

3

what two things are involved with fundic relaxation

VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide)
NO

4

what does the antral region of stomach do

mixes/grinds food with gastric secretions

5

what does the pyloric sphincter act as

sieve- only allows food particles of a certain size through

6

what does gastric juice contain

mucus
pepsinogen
intrinsic factor
lipase

7

what does mucus do

secreted by goblet cells and mucus neck cells- acts as a lubricant

8

what does lipase do

converts triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol

9

what does pepsin do

secreted by chief cells and in involved in protein digestion

10

what does intrinsic factor do

secreted by parietal cells- needed for vitamin b12 absorption

11

what is HCL secreted by and used for

parietal cells
important in defence
conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin

12

what is a paracrine secretion

local hormones- secreted from cells in the mucosa but chemical acts locally on adjacent cells via the interstitial fluid

13

example of paracrine secretion

somatostatin

14

what does somatostatin do

inhibits gastrin release in the stomach (controls release od acid)

15

what are three examples of exocrine secretions

salivary glands
gastric glands
pancreas
liver

16

what is an exocrine secretion

secretes in a duct

17

what does the salivary glands secrete

mucus- provides lubrication for mastication and speech

18

what do gastric glands secrete

hcl
pepsin
mucus

19

what does the pancreas release

bicarbonate ions- neutralise of acids in chyme
amylase
lipase
carboxypeptidase

20

what does the liver secrete

bile acids- emulsification of fats

21

what is an endocrine secretion

secretion straight into the blood- travel to target tissue
ductless glands

22

examples of endocrine secretions

gastrin
secretin
pancreozymin/cholecytstokinin
insulin

23

what does gastrin do

secreted by G cells in the antrum
important in motility

24

where is secretin secreted

duodenal mucosa

25

where is pancreozymin/cholecytstokinin secreted

duodenal mucosa
helps contract liver to release bile for lipolysis

26

what does insulin do

secreted by pancreas by beta cells

27

where does absorption mainly occur

small intestine

28

where does fluid absorption occur

small intestine
colon

29

in what case would diarrhoea occur

if passes too quickly, faeces will be watery as not enough time for absorption

30

where do indegestible food residues leave the body in

faeces

31

drugs and some products of normal metabolism leave body in (4)

vomit
faeces
bile
saliva

32

what is the largest lymphoepithelial organ

intestine

33

defence mechanisms(5)

-sight/smell/taste
-vomit reflex
- HCL
- natural bacterial flora
- aggregation of lymphoid tissue (peyers patches)

34

what are peyers patches

small patches of lymphatic tissue
mount a response to food bourne antigens- respond to pathogenic microbes