Fundamental Mechanisms in Human Growth and Puberty Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fundamental Mechanisms in Human Growth and Puberty Deck (15):
1

What are the requirements for normal human growth?

Absence of chronic disease, emotional stability, nutrition, normal hormone and growth factor actions and healthy growth plates

2

Name the 3 phases of normal linear growth

Infancy, childhood and puberty

3

Outline the infancy phase of linear growth

Grow at greatest rate, and dependent on nutrition largely

4

Outline the childhood phase of linear growth

Grow at medium, constant rate and is dependent on thw GH-IGF axis

5

Outline the pubertal phase of linear growth

Grow at fast peak rate and this is dependent on sex steroids and increased growth hormone production

6

Why is height and weight measured?

Can identify short stature disorders e.g. growth hormone deficiency or Turner syndrom

7

What is meant by the 91st centile?

That 91% of people are below that line

8

What could be the cause of proportionate short stature?

Turner syndrome, hypothyroidism, GI disease, psychosocial factors

9

What could be the cause of disproportional short stature?

Skeletal dysplasia including rickets

10

What may advanced bone age suggest?

A tall stature will result and could be due to central precocious puberty

11

What may delayed bone age suggest?

Growth failure that is secondary to paediatric Cushing's disease, perhaps

12

Define what is meant by 'short stature'

Length/height less than 2SDs of the mean for the age and sex of the appropriate reference population

13

How is the onset of puberty defined by Tanner?

Girls: Stage B2 ( budding of breast)
Boys: Stage G2 (testis volume > 3mL)

14

What is the mean age of puberty onset?

Girls: 11 years
Boys: 12 years

15

What genetic and environmental influences may affect the timing of female puberty?

Intrauterine growth, fat mass (leptin), endocrine disrupting chemicals, nutrition